Essay: Network Hardware.

Describe in your own words the important functions performed by following hardware commonly found in a network. Include a diagram (draw this yourself) indicating where these devices would be found in a network
A switch is a computer competent that serves the purpose of filtering , forwarding and flooding the fan based on the specific destination address that is assigned to each of them .One of the most frequently occurring routine roles of switches is primarily carried out at OSI level referred to the layer 2. The most frequent types of compound responsibilities of switches is during the time when it is connected to more switches to facilitate the generations as well as the maintenance of the links that are obsolete and the connectivity of the VLAN .It is noteworthy that switches are used to process various kinds of traffic in a similar manner . The manner in which the switch is used is usually not important.
Aside from the functions that have been highlighted above, switches are also used to transport traffic base on the addresses found in MAC. During this process, all switches retain the addressable usually in high speed memory referred to as the content addressable memory. The other imperative functions of the devices are the operation of the data link layer in the model. As a result of these functions, the switch serves as the creator of different collision domains for each switch port. Finally, the other essential functions that switches serve are offering an inbuilt firewall in the process of detecting network intrusion. It also offers performance analysis modules which can be used by plugging them into the ports of the switch.
As far as network hardware components are concerned, routers are usually known as the intermediary systems that carry out their activities on the network layer of the module. One of the most significant functions of the components is acting as the connectors between many networks that are connected to the internet. Apart from this, routers are also used to deliver packets in different networks. Routers serve more functions that the two that have been described. For example, they offer services in an attempt of meeting the high and many demands of the networks that are used currently. Among these services is ensuring that the dependence availability is stability especially in terms of network connectivity. In most cases m the functions is carried out by suing alternative components so as to caution against the risks brought about by the failure of the essential parts to deliver the packets. Additionally, routers serve the essential service of offering integrated data services, audio as well as video across both wired and wireless networks . Finally, they assist in the reduction of the effect of viruses coupled with other forms of attacks that might be made against the network. This is done by allowing or rejecting packets forwarding.

Essentially, a modem is an electric component that is used primarily for conversion of the digital data in a computer to the analog carrier signals. They are also used to convert the analog signals to digitals signals .This means that modems are used by computers mainly for interaction and the exchange of messages across a specific network. Modems serve various functions in networks. Among these functions is serving as the device for correcting errors since it r ensures that the information being exchanged is free from damage. The other significant role played by a modem is assisting in data compression. This is usually done by categorizing bits of data together so as to successfully compress them. Additionally a modem is used in flow control. Since the flow control is an imperative aspect of computer networks, a modem acts as an essential aspect of networks.

A host refers to network system that is used by a person that is working from a different location or a remote location. The word host is usually used when a number of computer system are interconnected especially via modems or in some cases telephone lines .This means that the host can be referred to the component that stores data . Among all the functions served by hosts, the most outstanding functions is offering the infrastructure that is needed for the entire computer service. A good example of this is witnessed when several organizations host programs, applications and files across a web server such that other companies and interested persons ca use them.

Network interface card.
This refers to the card that creates a connection as well as a network link between the cables and the computers in physical manner. Basically, the cards are known for their purpose internet connections since they come in two versions : the ISA and the PCi versions . One of the most profound responsibilities of the cards is facilitating the connections between the computers and their respective networks.
Question Two.
1. The Internet Protocol Stack – [1 page]
a) Describe the different layers found in the internet protocol stack and lists protocols commonly associated with each layer.

TCP/IP: The Layers .
Fourth Layer : The Application Layer
This is layer that is found at the tip of the TCP IP model . The application layer is used for the definitions of the various protocols .Apart from this, the layer is also known for hosting the programs that interfere with the services offered by the transport layer in order to use the said network. It is important to remember that there are some protocols that are part of the application layer .Some of the examples of these protocols include the hypertext Transfer Protols ( HTTP) , X windows , and the file transfer protocol . Other protocols include the Domain naming systems, and the Telnet.
Third Layer : The transport layer .
This is the third layer in the model and can be found between the application and internet layers . The sole purpose of the transport layer is to give room for the devices ,usually found in the source to have a conversation. In other words, the layer determines the degree of service for the connection that serves the purpose of transporting data and information. Some of the protocols that can be found in this layer include the transmission control protocol (TCP).

The internet Layer: Second Lsayer .
As the second layer in the protocol, the internet layer is located between the network access and transport layers . Essentially, the internet layer served the purpose of routing the data grams of the IP . It allows the host computer to create packets into the network followed by the delivery of the packets to their destinations in an independent way. The higher layers are assigned the task of recognizing the packets of data in the event that they look different from the original version that was sent . Within the internet layer some essential protocols can be found. Among these protocols are the Internet Protocol (IP) .Some of the other protocols are the Management protocol.
The Network Access layer: First layer .
This layer performs the task of explaining the process of directing data across the network . Some of the protocols that can be found in this layer include the frame relay and the token ring


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