Frame relay technology

Abstract

The world today completely works on digital signals though the real world is analog, and computer networks provide the backbone for communication. Networking has become a necessity for communication & includes various networking devices and many protocols. A pre requisite knowledge of networking is not only important but increases the demand of professionals in the corporate & IT sector. In this project I have worked on FRAME RELAY technology. I have taken 3 branches of AMITY with different network topologies and have established a connection between the various branches using frame relay technology.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgement i

Certificate ii

Declaration iii

Abstract iv

S. No. Title Page No.

1. Introduction

 Networks

 Types Of Network 1

2. OSI Reference Model 3

3. IP Addressing

 Types Of IP Addresses

 Subnet Mask 7

4. Network Devices & Topologies

 Network Topology

 Network Devices

 Cabling Devices 9

5. Routers

 Routing

 Static Routing

 Dynamic Routing 15

6. DHCP 25

7. Frame Relay 26

8. Conclusion 27

Reference 29

1. Introduction

Network:

A network is basically a connection between various electronic devices such as servers and many computers and their components that permits ease of flow of data and use of various resources between one& another.

Computer Network:

Computer network is a means sending or sharing of data & various other resources between many computers with the help of a channel or medium. This medium of communication can be either wired like, using optical fibers or it can be wireless like using radio waves.

Fig. 1. Networking systems

Applications of Networking-

Hardware & Software sharing between devices.

To store & share data remotely.

Centralized administration & supporting.

Significance of sharing-

The greatest advantage of network is its ability to send or share data quickly and cheaply. This has made it popular all over the world.

By making the data or information available for sharing with the various users connected in a network, networks tend cut down the need of communication through paper, increased efficiency, and data available to each and every user who needs it.

Types of Networks-

LAN.

This netw0rk that is c0nfined t0 a small area, like a single building, or a group of building which are part of the same organization like, within a sch0ol etc.

MAN.

This network is used to connect computers with cities, metropolis etc. Such type of connections make use of coaxial cables, fiber optic cables etc.

WAN.

This network is manly used to connect large geographic areas such as different cities, countries or even continents. WAN can either be terrestrial or satellite based.

In terrestrial, optical fibres and cables are used, while in satellite based GSL & PSL are used.

Section 2. OSI Reference Model

0SI is a non-physical model. It is essentially an arrangement of controls that different application and programming engineers require when they are making or creating applications and virtual products that keep running over various systems. The 0SI model additionally gives a system to making and acknowledging distinctive conventions.

The 0SI is comprehensively partitioned into 2 groups& incorporates 7 unique layers. The capacity of the initial 3 layers is to characterize the working and working of the application at and between the end stations furthermore with the client. The last 4 layers characterize how information transmission happens from one point to the next.

The 0SI model has the accompanying 7 stage layers-

• Applicati0n (7)

• Presntati0n (6)

• Sessi0n (5)

• Transp0rt (4)

• Netw0rk (3)

• DataLink (2)

• Physcal ( 1)

Fig-2: 0SI Reference Model

“Application Layer-The application layer is the top most layer i.e. the seventh layer of the OSI model that recognizes the spot where the client speaks with the PC, thusly the application layer is the nearest layer to the client. The capacity of the layer is to give different system administrations to the applications utilized by the client.

The distinctive sort of use layer conventions are-

• SNMP-Simple Network Management Protocol – this convention shares the status of different gadgets associated in a system and additionally to control them.

• Domain Naming System–This convention is utilized to change over the site name into IP address that can be comprehended by PC.

• Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol — this convention is utilized to dole out IP and DNS

naturally to PCs.

• Telnet-the telnet convention is utilized to build up an association with remote gadgets and controls them.

• Hypertext Transfer Protocol — Protocol required to scans site pages.

• File Transfer Protocol — this convention empowers us to send information or records of any sort.

• Simple Mail Transfer Protocol — convention to sends messages.

• Post Office Protocol-v.3 — convention to recover messages.

• Network Time Protocol — convention used to synchronize arranged gadget’s tickers.”

Presentation Layer-The presentation layer demonstrates the data to the application layer and is accountable for data understanding and code masterminding. It fundamentally gives coding and change limits. A compelling data trade framework is to alter the data into a standard game plan before transmission. PCs are masterminded to get this nonexclusively planned data and after that change over the data at the end of the day into its nearby association for certified scrutinizing. By giving translation organizations, Presentation layer ensures the traded data from the application layer of one structure can be examined by that of another. Errands like data weight, decompression, encryption, and disentangling are associated with this layer.

Session Layer-The Session layer is responsible for setting up, regulating, and after that tearing down the sessions between presentation layer substances. This layer furthermore gives talk control between contraptions, or center points. It encourages correspondence amongst systems and serves to deal with their correspondence by offering three interesting modes: simples, half duplex, and full duplex. TTo total up, this layer generally keeps unmistakable applications’ data separate from other applications’ data.”

Transport Layer-The Transport layer segments and reassembles data into data streams. It offers end-to-end data transport advantages and can develop a predictable relationship between the sending host and the destination host on the internetwork. The Transport layer is accountable for offering frameworks to multiplexing upper layer applications, developing sessions, and tearing down virtual circuits. The Transport layer can be both connectionless or affiliation arranged.

Transport layer utilize two conventions for sending information, they are-

TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)-

TCP is association arranged convention. It costs us more yet it is more solid than UDP.

UDP (User Datagram Protocol)

UDP is connectionless convention along these lines is less dependable than TCP.”

“Framework Layer-The Network layer directs contraption tending to, tracks the territory of devices on the framework, and chooses the best way to deal with move data, which suggests that the Network layer most transport action between devices that are not secretly joined. Switches are demonstrated at the Network layer and give the guiding organizations inside an internetwork.”

“IP PACKET

Where the vehicle layer utilizes fragments to exchange data between machines, the Internet layer uses datagram’s. Datagram is simply one more word for parcel.

IP locations are broken into two segments:

System segment Defines on what section, in the system, a gadget is found

Host segment characterizes the particular gadget on a specific system section

Two sorts of bundles are utilized at the Network layer: information and course upgrades.”

Information PACKETS

They are utilized to transport client information through the internetwork. Conventions used to bolster information activity are called steered conventions; case of directed conventions are IP and IPv6.

Course UPDATE PACKETS

These are used to update neighboring switches about the frameworks connected with all switches inside the internetwork. Traditions that send course update bundles are called guiding traditions; instance of some essential ones are RIP, RIPv2, EIGRP, and OSPF. Course update packages are used to fabricate and keep up coordinating tables on each switch”.

Data Link Layer-The Data Link Layer gives the physical transmission of the data and handles botch cautioning, framework topology, and stream control. This infers this layer will promise messages are passed on to the right contraption on a LAN using gear addresses and will decipher messages from the Network Layer into bits for the Physical Layer to transmit. The Data Link Layer sorts out the message into pieces, each called data packaging, and incorporates an adjusted header containing the gear destination and source addresses. Switches and interfaces both work on this layer.

Physical Layer – The Physical Layer does things-It sends bits and gets bits. It talks about particularly with the diverse sorts of genuine correspondence. The Physical Layer decides the electrical, mechanical, procedural, and helpful requirements for sanctioning, keeping up, and deactivating a physical association between end structures. This is also the layer where the interface between DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) and DCE (Data Communication Equipment) is recognized.

Part 2. 0SI Reference Model

0SI is a non-physical model. It is fundamentally an arrangement of controls that different application and programming engineers require when they are making or creating applications and virtual products that keep running over various systems. The 0SI model likewise gives a system to making and acknowledging diverse conventions.

The 0SI is comprehensively isolated into 2 groups& incorporates 7 unique layers. The capacity of the initial 3 layers is to characterize the working and working of the application at and between the end stations furthermore with the client. The last 4 layers characterize how information transmission happens from one point to the next.

The 0SI model has the accompanying 7 stage layers-

• Applicati0n (7)

• Presentati0n (6)

• Sessi0n (5)

• Transp0rt (4)

• Netw0rk (3)

• Data Link (2)

• Physical ( 1)

0SI Reference Model

“Application Layer-The application layer is the top most layer i.e. the seventh layer of the 0SI model that distinguishes the spot where the client speaks with the PC, along these lines the application layer is the nearest layer to the client. The capacity of the layer is to give different system administrations to the applications utilized by the client.

The distinctive kind of utilization layer conventions are-

• SNMP-Simple Network Management Protocol – this convention shares the status of different gadgets associated in a system and likewise to control them.

• Domain Naming System–This convention is utilized to change over the site name into IP address that can be comprehended by PC.

• Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol — this convention is utilized to dole out IP and DNS consequently to PCs.

• Telnet-the telnet convention is utilized to build up an association with remote gadgets and controls them.

• Hypertext Transfer Protocol — Protocol required to scans pages.

• File Transfer Protocol — this convention empowers us to send information or records of any sort.

• Simple Mail Transfer Protocol — convention to sends messages.

• Post Office Protocol-v.3 — convention to recover messages.

• Network Time Protocol — convention used to synchronize arranged gadget’s timekeepers.”

Presentation Layer-The presentation layer demonstrates the data to the application layer and is responsible for data understanding and code organizing. It essentially gives coding and change limits. A viable data trade framework is to conform the data into a standard game plan before transmission. PCs are masterminded to get this flatly composed data and after that change over the data at the end of the day into its nearby design for genuine examining. By giving understanding organizations, Presentation layer ensures the traded data from the application layer of one system can be examined by that of another. Assignments like data weight, decompression, encryption, and unscrambling are associated with this layer.

Sessi0n Layer-The Session layer is accountable for setting up, managing, and after that tearing down the sessions between presentation layer components. This layer similarly gives talk control between devices, or center points. It masterminds correspondence amongst systems and serves to form their correspondence by offering three unmistakable modes: simples, half duplex, and full duplex. T0 entire up, this layer on a very basic level keeps particular applications’ data separate from other applications’ data.

“Section 3. IP Addressing

IP Address

The IP remains for Internet-Protocol. It is a 32-bit long intelligent location and contains 4 octets. Every octet contains a most extreme of 8 bits.

Each of the octet of an IP location can fluctuate from 0 to 255. PCs and different gadgets read the IP as a nonstop stream of 32-bits.

Fig-4: IP Address Format

The 2 sections of an IP location are:

System bits-The left parcel of the IP location are framed by the system bits.

Host bits-The right parcel of the IP location is framed by the host bits as appeared.

Fig-5: Parts of IP

Sorts of IP Address-

IP Addresses are generally characterized into 2 sorts as takes after:

Private IP-Address-Private-IP location is utilized to develop private systems. One of the particular issue with private IP location is that with this write we are banned from getting to the web. The ISP known as Internet Service Provider obtains a great deal of open IP address and appropriates them on rent. The cash that we pay to ISP for getting to the web is the charge for utilizing open IP address.

0pen IP Address-The IP addresses that fall outside the scope of Private IP locations are called Public IP address.

• “O” is a saved digit &indicates all the IP addresses.

• “127” is additionally saved and is utilized for testing purposes.

• “255” is additionally a saved location and is utilized for TV purposes.

Subnet Mask-

We realize that the IP location is 32-bit address and made out of both the Network bits and also the Host bits. The Subnet-Mask is a 32-bit esteem that is utilized to recognize the system part and the host part of the IP address.

Subnetting

Subnetting is a strategy in which a solitary system is part into various systems. It is likewise called FLSM Fixed Length Subnet Mask.

Focal points of Subnetting-

It Reduces load on system i.e. movement.

Gives Optimized system performance& builds proficiency.

It Simplifies management& decreases man endeavors.

Section 4. Organizing Devices and Network Topologies

System TOPOLOGY-

In PC sorting out, topology implies the outline of related contraptions. Framework topologies are requested into the going with fundamental sorts:

Transport Topology-Bus frameworks use a run of the mill spine to partner all devices. A singular connection, the spine limits as a typical correspondence medium that contraptions annex or exploit with an interface connector. A contraption expecting to talk with another device on the framework sends a broadcast message onto the wire that each other device see, yet simply the proposed recipient truly recognizes and shapes the message.

Fig-6: Bus Topology

Ring Topology-In a ring framework, every contraption has unequivocally two neighbors for correspondence purposes. All messages experience a ring in the same course (either “clockwise” or “counterclockwise”). A mistake in any connection or device breaks the circle and can cut down the entire framework.

Ring Topology

Star Topology-A star framework highlights a central affiliation point called a “middle point center point” that may be a framework focus point, switch or switch. Devices generally take up with the inside point with Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Ethernet. A failure in any star framework connection will simply cut down one PC’s framework get to and not the entire LAN. Nevertheless, if the inside misses the mark, regardless, the entire framework furthermore fails.

Star Topology

Tree Topology-Tree topologies consolidate different star topologies together onto a vehicle. In its slightest complex structure, simply focus direct devices interface clearly toward the tree transport and each inside point limits as the establishment of a tree of contraptions. This vehicle/star cream approach supports future expandability of the framework much better than a vehicle and star.

Tree Topology

System Topology-Mesh topologies incorporate courses. Not at all like each of the past topologies, messages sent on a cross area framework can take any of a couple of possible routes from source to destination. (Audit that even in a ring, though two connection ways exist, messages can simply go in one course.) Some WANs, most conspicuously the Internet, use system coordinating. A cross section framework in which every contraption interfaces with each other is known as a full work.

Mesh Topology

Arranging DEVICES-

PC sorting out devices are units that mediate data in a PC mastermind and are in like manner called framework gear. Units which are the last recipient or produce data are called hosts or data terminal apparatus.

A bit of the Networking Devices are according to the accompanying

Switches Routers work at the system layer of the OSI model and productively course data between Local Area Networks. Since switches work in the third layer, the system layer, they should comprehend layer 3 tending to, for example, TCP/IP. A switch will isolate a show area by not sending telecasts on one associated system to another associated system. Switches work in two distinct planes: the control plane, in which the switch takes in the active interface that is most fitting for sending particular bundles to particular destinations, and the sending plane, which is in charge of the real procedure of sending a parcel got on a coherent interface to an outbound intelligent interface.

Centers Hubs interface PCs together in a star topology system. Because of their configuration, they expand the odds for impacts. Center points work in the physical layer of the OSI show and have no insight. Center points surge approaching bundles to constantly. Consequently, if a system is associated utilizing center points, the odds of a crash increment directly with the quantity of PCs (accepting equivalent data transfer capacity use). Center points represent a security hazard since all bundles are overwhelmed to constantly.

Switches-Switches are regularly mistaken for extensions since they likewise work at the information join layer of the OSI model. Like a center point, switches give a focal association between two or more PCs on a system, however with some insight. They give movement control to bundles; instead of sending information to all the associated ports, a switch advances information just to the port on which the destination framework is associated. They utilize a database of MAC locations to figure out where PCs are found and proficiently send parcels just where they have to go. The database is made progressively as PCs impart on the system. The switch basically watches the approaching parcels and remembers the MAC address and port a bundle touches base on.

Switch Network

Spans Bridges can be recognized by the way that they work at the information join layer of the 0SI model. Spans have knowledge and can “connect” two of their ports together at rapid. They utilize a database of MAC locations to figure out where PCs are found and proficiently send outlines just where they have to go. The database is made progressively as PCs impart on the system. An extension just watches the approaching edge and remembers the MAC address and port a casing touches base on. It utilizes this data to find a PC if a parcel comes in that must be sent to it.

Bridge Network

Repeaters-A repeater is an electronic device that gets a sign and retransmits it at a bigger sum and/or higher power, or onto the inverse side of a hindrance, so that the sign can cover longer divisions without corruption. Since repeaters work with the genuine physical banner, and don’t try to decode the data being transmitted, they take a shot at the physical layer, the foremost layer of the OSI model.

Repeater

Modem-M0dem (from m0dulator-dem0dulator) is a contraption that turns the propelled 1s and Os of a PC into sounds that can be transmitted by means of telephone lines of Plain 0ld Telephone Systems (P0TS), and once got on the other side, changes over those sounds at the end of the day into a structure used by a USB, Ethernet, serial, or framework affiliation. Modems are all things considered gathered by the measure of data they can send in a given time, customarily measured in bits consistently, or “bps”.

Fig-16: Modem

CABLING DEVICES-

Straight Cable-A straight-through connection is used for DTE-to-DCE affiliations. Case in point, a middle to a switch, PC, or rec0rd server; a change to a switch, PC, or report server.

Half and half Cable-Cross0ver j0ins should be used when you relate a DTE to another DTE or a DCE to another DCE. Case in point, an inside to an0ther middle point; a change to another change; a middle point to a switch; a PC, switch, or archive server t0 another PC, switch, or record server.

Roll0ver Cable/C0nsole Cable-It is basically used to get to the switch. It is used to partner switch to PC and access the I0S (Internetwork 0perating System) of switch.

Section 5. Switches and their Configurations

Prologue to Routers

Switch is essentially an insightful gadget that makes correspondence conceivable between gadgets associated with various system which perhaps in various geological regions, in basic words switch builds up association between various systems.

The switch capacities on the third layer of the OSI-Model, therefore it comprehends the different conventions required amid transmission of parcels of information.

Router Symbol

Elements of Routers-

Numerous Active ways Routers monitor the different various dynamic ways. They monitor the various dynamic ways between a given source and destination system.

Distinguish address-Routers work at the system layer and can get to more data than a scaffold. Switches can likewise perceive the destination and source system addresses inside the parcels.

Movement Management-Routers ordinarily give outstanding activity controlling utilizing astute way determination. Switches select the finest course in view of movement.

Sharing data Routers additionally share the status and the directing data with alternate switches in system. By doing as such they can really observe the system and recognize which all associations are occupied and which are free.

Sifting awful information Routers for the most part, don’t forward any information that doesn’t have a legitimate system address. Switches are known not telecast movement this is accomplished by not directing the show parcels.

Switch Memory Elements

The boot ROM-The boot ROM is a memory component that has a pre-introduced IOS-web working framework and a picture RX-boot.

Streak Memory-The blaze memory is an EPROM i.e. electronically erasable programmable ROM that stores the IOS pictures. The substance of glimmer are held notwithstanding when switch is off.

RAM-the RAM stores the present running IOS and does reserving. Since it is an unpredictable sort of memory thusly loses its substance when the switch is killed.

NVRAM-not at all like the RAM, the Non Volatile Random Access Memory is a re-writeable memory that stores the switch setup record.

The Various Working Modes of a R0uter are-

1. User Mode or Default m0de

2. Privilege or Administrative M0de

3. Global Configuration M0de

4. Sub-Interface M0de.

5. Router M0de

6. Interface Configuration M0de

7. Line Configuration M0de

Directing

Directing is a system by which it furnishes us with the most ideal courses for the transmission of information parcels from the source to the destination and keeps up that way. There are 3 sorts of steering, which are-

Static Routing-

In static directing the head of the system physically or physically makes or appoints the course for information bundle transmission.

Dynamic Routing-

In dynamic routing the route for the transmission of data packets is assigned by the admin with the help of protocols. This type of routing is the most widely used all over the world.

Default Routing-

When no route can be defined using either static or dynamic routing, the default route is assigned.

The routing process requires the router to know the following info:

Configuring Interfaces-

Fig-18: Router Configuration on Cisco Packet Tracer

Static Routing-

This type of routing occurs when routes are added manually in each r0uter’s routing table. There are several advantages and disadvantages with the static routing. They are used to define the gateway of last resort. This is the place where the packet is routed if no other suitable path can be found. When routing to a stub network, static routers are used. A stub network is defined as a network accessed by a single route. Even for security reasons, static routers are used and when the network is small, static routers are used.

BENEFITS

1. No overhead is available on the router CPU i.e. we can buy cheaper routers than the dynamic routing.

2. No bandwidth sharing between the resources.

3. Security is achieved because the routing access is provided by administrators to certain networks only.

Dynamic Routing-

Dynamic routing is done with the help of protocols for finding networks &to update the routing tables situated on the routers. It is much easier than employing static routing or default routing. The routing protocols provide the rules & regulations which has to be followed by the router when it has to communicate with neighboring routers.

The various dynamic routing Protocols are as follows-

• RIP

• IGRP

• EIGRP

Routing Protocols Basics-

RIP.

RIP-r0uting information pr0toc0l is basically a distance vector type of routing protocol. In this type of dynamic routing, the routing table is updated every 30 seconds. The max hop-count allowed for RIP is 15, which means that 16 is considered to be unreachable. The AD value of RIP is 120. It works well with small area networks or LAN & is unsuitable for large networks containing many routers.

RIP has two versions:

RIP v1- This version uses CLASSFULL routing that means all the devices that are connect o the network should have the same subnet mask. This is due to the reason that RIP sends updates without the subnet mask information.

RIP v2- This version is called prefix routing as it does not send any subnet mask info with routing updates. It is known as CLASSLES routing.

IGRP-

IGRP known as the interiors gatewey routing protocol developed by CISCO & is a type of distance-vector pr0toc0l. Only CISCO routers can be configured for IGRP. This protocol was introduced so as to overcome the problems faced by RIP. The max hop count for IGRP is 255 & default hop count is 100. Due to large hop-count it can serve large areas.

EIGRP-Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol-

EIGRP known as enhanced-interior gateway r0uting pr0tocol that was developed because IGRP was confined to CISCO routers only. It is classless type & distance vector protocol. EIGRP uses ASN- autonomous system number to label the different routers connected to each other through same protocol & having same routing info. EIGRP mainly uses subnet masks for its routing updates. EIGRP has max hop count of 255.

EIGRP uses following metrics

Bandwidth

Delay

Load

Reliability

OSPF: OSPF is basically a link n state kind of routing protocol & mainly works on the SPF, i.e. short path first algorithm. In this protocol, first a shortest path first tree is designed& then the r0uting-table is populated with the best possible r0utes.

Chapter-6. DHCP

DHCP stands for Dynamic H0st C0nfiguration Protocol. It is basically a standard network prot0col that is used f0r dynamically distributing network configurati0n parameters like IP addresses.

The DHCP has great advantage as it reduces time and physical work.

In DHCP, there is chain of communication between the client or workstation & the server.

They are discovery, offer, & request & acknowledge.

In this protocol the client send request t0 the server for IP address, the DHCP server in turn acknowledges it by sending or providing IP dynamically, automatically.

Fig-19 DHCP Process

Chapter-7. Frame Relay

Frame Relay

The Frame-Relay technology is basically a high performance wide area network (WAN) protocol. It works on the physical layer and data link layer of the 0SI model. Initially it was designed for functioning across ISDN services.

Some salient features of Frame-Relay are-

• High Speed operation (44.3 mbps).

• Functions on the physical & data link layer of 0SI model.

• It is cost effective as compared to other WAN connection protocols such as the X-25.

Basic Concepts of Frame Relay-

VIRTUAL CIRCUIT-VC

A VC is basically a l0gical or virtual c0nnection in-between 2 devices, as a result, there may be many VC’s present on the same connection. VCs are full-duplex: that is we can simultaneously receive as well as send on the same VC. They provide full connectivity at lower cost, which is its advantage over leased lines.

LMI : It stands for l0cal management interface.

There are 3 different standards for LMI:-

• ANSI’s Annex D standard, T1.617

• ITU-T’s Q.933 Annex A standard

• The Gang of F0ur

DLCI

For every virtual circuit, VC there is a unique local address, called the DLCI.

These circuits are rec0gnized by a data link connection identifier DLCI.

These DLCIs are all0cated by the service provider and are used between the router and the Frame-Relay provider.

CONCLUSION

Frame relay technology is high speed WAN technology that works on physical layer of the OSI model.

My project comprises of three branches of AMITY UNIVERSITY namely Amity University Noida, Amity University Jaipur & Amity University Dubai, with each of the branches having their own networks working on various Routing Protocol. I have used RIP routing and EIGRP so as to establish connection between different networks of the 3 branches.

Moreover I have established a server in each network that automatically assigns IP address to other workstations using DHCP.

And with the help of frame relay I have established a network that connects these various networks situated in different regions to cloud altogether, which in turn makes communication possible among the three branches.

Source: Essay UK - http://doghouse.net/essays/information-technology/frame-relay-technology/


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