Mobile ad-hoc network

Abstract— A mobile ad-hoc network is a type of network in which all the nodes can communicate to each other without any infrastructure. This unique property of MANET is useful in conditions where exchange of information is the prime objective under any circumstances. In this type of network all communicating nodes cooperate with each other in the distributed manner and offer dual responsibility, one as a host and the other as router. This quality of MANET paves the way for numerous new and exciting applications over Next Generation MANET. These applications may lie under following categories, i.e. Operator-consumer applications, peer to peer applications, Machine to Machine Applications, Mobile web services and Social networking applications. We enumerate and briefly discuss issues and challenges of Next Generation MANET in terms of peer to peer applications.

Keywords—ad-hoc,PDAs)
I. INTRODUCTION (HEADING 1)
In communication, connectivity to the Internet has become a basic necessity . Internet has been used in mailing, banking, commerce, entertainment systems and found new ways of information sharing and social networking. Compared to the last two decades Internet has an enormous growth and the same is expected in the Next Generation Network by connecting more entities to the network and enabling more applications and services. Mobile wireless communication has now become a necessity due to its versatility and utility convenience. A drastic change in our information society is achieved and we are moving towards ubiquitous age, where one can access information at any time and any place. But high speed networks are still essential .So we require the Next Generation MANET to improve the throughput, speed and other factors .The wireless devices currently used fixed infrastructure based services to provide connectivity to the end user but this type of service requires lots of time and cost to establish the necessary infrastructure.
In the case of emergencies all infrastructure based networks collapse but there is one network that exists against all odds i.e. Mobile Ad-hoc Network .MANET is a self-creating, self-organizing and self-administering network. This network is an infrastructure less network, in which every node acts as a host as well as router for communicating with other nodes. MANET are gaining momentum because they offer network services with no pre-existing infrastructure or wireless links requirements [2,3]. Ad hoc nodes also connect to dedicated gateway to offer internet services to end user where pre-installed infrastructure is not available. All these options make Mobile Ad-hoc Networking as an attractive option in future Next Generation Network revolutionize the way we communicate by supporting rich multimedia applications that demand extremely high-speed wireless connections, lower latency and high throughput. To realize these benefits, Next Generation Network will differ fundamentally from their predecessors. MANET would be one of the integral parts of Next Generation Networks due to its unique characteristics.

This paper deals with Next Generation MANET, performance parameters associated with dynamic configuration of mobile ad hoc networks. We therefore presents the main characteristics, applications and critical issues , challenges to be overcome in NG Network and certain open issues.
.
This paper is organized into six parts as following. Section 1 presents the MANET Characteristics . Section 2 Concentrates on MANET Applications. Section 3 discusses MANET Parameters in detail. Section 4 provides overview of Next Generation Network and its challenges.
Issues/difficulties encountered and when the conventional networking strategies are used in MANETs. Section 5 provides related works giving an overview of the existing remedies for MANETs and discusses the applicability of the security design. Finally, section 6 Proposes conclusion and future research potential for securing in MANETs.
II. MANET CHARACTERISTICS
A. Wireless
All the nodes are exchange the message without any physical medium. They send the messages through radio waves , infrared etc.
B. Ad-hoc Based
All the nodes are having capability to arrange themselves according to the situation as per the need arises and creates a network of dynamic in nature.
C. Autonomous network
This type of network does not need any centralized authority to look after the nodes during communication because node itself plays two roles: one as a host and another as a router.
D. Multihop Routing
During the entire communication each node is having dual responsibility; it acts like a router to control the operations performed as well as it works as mobile host also.
E. Mobility
Every node in this network is capable of moving from one place to another while communicating with other nodes and creates topology according to the need arises
F. Mobility
Every node in this network is capable of moving from one place to another while communicating with other nodes and creates topology according to the need arises.
III. MANIT APPLICATIONS
Due to the tremendous influence of mobile in day to day life, the commercial sector and standard communities realized the need of applications based on technologies such as Bluetooth, IEEE 802.11, Hyper lan and others that support mobile ad hoc networking to a large extent. As a result, many new ad hoc networking applications conceived which are as follows finally, complete content and organizational editing before formatting. Please take note of the following items when proofreading spelling and grammar:
A. Tactical Networks
This network plays very important role during war in battlefield for exchange of information in respect of situational awareness among tactical force units.
B. Sensor Networks
This network is mainly used in battlefield surveillance, monitoring and control activities to collect real time data of various industrial and consumer applications such as environmental monitoring, health monitoring and industrial process monitoring and so on .
C. Emergency Services
These services are often required in case of natural disasters like earthquakes, tsunami, and hurricanes; fire etc. when fixed infrastructure gets damaged.
D. Commercial environments
MANET is a key component of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) as a VANET. Various Business activities and E-Commerce are also not left behind.
E. Home and Enterprise Networking
Personal Area Network (PAN) is a short distance communication network frequently used in information exchange in home and enterprise. PDA’s and wireless networking are also used in ad-hoc manner.
F. Educational Applications
MANET is also used in establishing virtual classrooms or conference rooms in which distributed and collaborative sharing takes place.
G. Entertainment
MANET is also used in Multiuser games, robotic pets, outdoor Internet access.

H. Location Aware Services
These services deliver information regarding the physical location of any device to another user or application. It is one of the inbuilt features of present technology.
IV. MANIT PARAMETRS

• Bandwidth –The capacity of the channel which decides the maximum rate of information exchanged is known as Bandwidth. It is commonly measured in bits/second.
• Throughput: The actual rate of successful transmission of bits / messages per unit time. It is affected by bandwidth of channel, signal to noise ratio and hardware devices.
• Latency: It indicates any kind of delay occurred in data communication network. It may be small delays or long delays. The networks having small delays are calls low latency networks. The network having long delays are called high latency networks. Bandwidth of the entire channel gets affected either temporary or persistent based of quantity and source of delays. The delay between the two ends i.e. from source to destination is called end to end delay (EED).
Time taken by the message for the complete arrival at the destination is known as Latency or delay.It depends upon four components: propagation time, transmission time, queuing time and processing delay.
Latency =propagation time +transmission time +queuing time + processing delay
Propagation Time
The time taken by the bit to travel from the source to the destination is known as Propogation Time.The propagation time depends upon the distance and propagation speed.

Propagation time = Distance / Propagation speed

Transmission Time
Time interval between the first bit leaving the sender and the last bit arriving at the receiver is known as Transmission Time of entire message. It depends on the size of the message and the bandwidth of the channel.

Transmission time =Message size / Bandwidth

Queuing Time

Time taken by intermediate devices to process and forward the message to specified node as instructed by the other node is known as Queuing Time .It depends upon various factors like processing speed of the intermediate device, buffer size etc.
It varies according to the traffic of the network. At heavy traffic queuing time is increased and each message will have to wait.

Processing delay

The delay occurs during the processing of messages.

• Jitter: It is one of the most important parameter which directly hampers the continuous transmission of packets across the network. It occurred due to network congestion, configuration errors. In other words It is defined as the variation in the delay of packets received instead of remaining constant
It is also called Packet delay Variation (PDV). It is end to end delay between selected packets in a flow. It is important QoS factor in network performance.
• Bit Error rate: The rate at which the error occurred is known as Error rate. Errors are observed due to interference, distortion. the number of corrupted bits expressed as a percentage or fraction of the total sent. Bit error rate(BER) is also known as bit error ratio. It is defined as follows

BER=Number of bit errors / Total number of transferred bits
• Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR): – : It is the ratio of actual packet delivered to total packets sent.
PDR= Actual packet delivered / Total packet sent
• Route discovery time: The time needed for the source node to discover a route to the destination.
• Route reconstruction time: The time taken upon triggering route reconstruction or repair (when mobility occurs) till completion.
.
V. NEXT GENERATION NETWORK
Next generation network is all about convergence of various technologies .As it is observed that the internet is now an integral part of human society .Providing services to end user to enhance the user experience about the network.
Next Generation Network is a Self-Network, Trustable Network, Sustainable Network, Ambient / Ubiquitous network and Value Creation Network. Out of these above Self-Network, Ubiquitous network and Value Creation Network are key objectives of MANET also. Therefore Mobile ad-hoc network plays critical role in Next Generation Network. How it could take place that is another issue.
CHALLENGES OF NEXT GENERATION MANET
• Complexity of Telecom networks increased in multiple tiers
• Radio Access Network,IP transport,IMS
• QoS must be guaranteed in all tiers.
• QoS signaling latency impacts
• Post Dial Delay- Time taken when you press a button of mobile phone, to acquire a service.
• Handoff Latency-During movement inside the network session interruption would be minimum.
• Multiple Design Alternatives-( To deploy Next Generation Network)
• Many policy management platforms
• Many architectural options ( flat, hierarchical .)
VI. FUTURE CONSUMER TARGETTED APPLICATIONS

There are various applications , few of them are listed below:
• Only precise services will be provided on demand.
• Nice Value added services.
• Location based services.
• Rich Multimedia Services IP Multimedia Services (IMS)
• Mobile TV
• VOIP
• Video Conferencing
• Instant Messaging / Group Communication
• Data Telemetry
• Automotive Application
• Music & Video Streaming
• Real time mobile applications

Fig 1: Next Generation Network Features

VII. NEXT GENERATION SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
The basic premise for NGN is architecture on several independent levels. These include the access area, the core network area; the control level and the service management level (see Fig. 2).
The connection of subscribers and terminals to the NGN can be achieved with various access technologies. The information and transmission formats of the various networks must be converted into information that is comprehensible for the NGN. This calls for Gateways for the connection of business and private customers. The core network of the NGN is an IP network. This is a standardized transport platform consisting of various IP routers and switches. The connection control of the individual components is carried out by the control level. Standard and value-added services can then be provided via the service management level.
Services (Video On Demand, Triple Play, Gaming, Conferencing etc.)

Control Level

Various end devices (cell phone,PC, PDA ,Video Phone) Access Technology A
IP Backbone ( Core Network)
Access Technology B
Access Technology C
Fig 2: Modular Structure of NGN
VIII. PERFORMANCE PARAMETRS OF NEXT GENERATION MANET
Performance parameters are divided into three main categories: Parameters associated to link, parameters associated to intermediate when node act as a router, parameters related to failures and other additional parameters
S. No. Performance Parameters of Next Generation MANET
Categories Parameters
1 Related to Communication Link Capacity (Bandwidth)
Propagation Delay
Bit Error Rate
Technology Used
Geographical Link Location
2 Related to router (When node act as a router ) Memory (RAM)
Disk Capacity
Buffer Size
Forwarding Delay
Forwarding Capacity
Processing Delay
Geographical Location
3 Related to failures Packet loss probability
Mean time between failures(MTBF)
Resilience mechanism
4 Additional parameters Jitter
Packet reordering
Path bandwidth
Jitter under changing load
Current Workload
Energy Consumption

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