Film tourism activities

LITERATURE REVIEW

INTRODUCTION

This chapter presents theoretical and empirical literature review related to film tourism activities. Specific focus was placed on Tanzanian cultural heritage tourism destinations cases. It also presents theoretical frameworks and theories related to film tourism. Other subtopics presented included literature on tourist visitations, income growth and film tourism impact on destination areas’ economy. Presented in this section is also a methodological review of related literature and research gap. It should be noted that, empirical review of literature comes later in this section deliberately for the following reasons: (i) Since this research triangulated a lot of data sources, it required a lengthy presentation various theories and theoretical framework suitable to respective data (ii) It was difficult to mix theoretical and empirical data in the same subsections.

2.1 Conceptual Review of Literature

This section reviews some theories applicable to this thesis. The theories were used for discussion of findings in chapter five and knowledge building through confirmation and falsification in chapter six. In this section, presented are also conceptual frameworks, which helped in guiding this research.

Despite the fact that, the issue of film tourist travel motivations and impact on toured sites has drawn a significant attention among film tourist and geographic researchers (Shepherd, 2003), there is no consensus among academicians and researchers that, a single theory can sufficiently address tourist travel motivations, Parinello (1996). The complexity of tourism industry and heterogeneous nature of human behaviour makes this a highly challenging academic field for investigation (Balon, 2010). This research used the AIDA theory along with theory travel motivations and semiotic theories as a theoretical base for hypothetical- deductive knowledge building in this thesis.

2.1.1 The AIDA Model

Modern marketing theory can be shown in the AIDA Model (Li and Yu, 2013). The model is used for describing hierarchy of events and can be used to explain stages that customers use starting with awareness to achieve their purchasing decisions (Hudson et al; 2010). A.I.D.A model is an acronym for Attention, Interest, and Action respectively. Li and Yu (2013) tried to explain the AIDA model components in detail:

2.1.1.1 Detailed Description of AIDA Model

(a) Attention refers to the art of attracting attention to customers. In film tourism various techniques in a movie like narration styles and placement of products in movies could draw the attention of customers on the merits of particular products or services.

(b) Interest-This is the practise raising interest of customers to particular products or services, by focusing and demonstrating on advantages instead of focusing o features alone as is for traditional advertising. In this thesis for example, demonstrating the formation of geographical features such as formation of stalactites and stalagmites on a movie, would give students/pupils the advantages of learning through seeing and store learning stimuli for a long time in their memory. This may trigger their teachers and students to create a desire to travel to Amboni caves.

(c) Desire- this is the act of convincing your customers that, the product or service you are trying to offer, will satisfy their needs. In our Oldupai Gorge portrayal, the narrator tried to convince his customers by telling them that, they will not regret to visit Oldupai which is a cradle of human evolution. That visiting of Odupai Gorge, will not only provide visitors with ritualistic satisfaction but also fulfil the desire to see wild animals surrounding the gorge.

(d) Action- After the customers are convinced of the satisfaction that they can get through purchasing a product or service, the next step is to take action to purchase the product or service. For example, actual action of visiting a cultural heritage tourist destination like Oldupai Gorge, Amboni caves or Kondoa Irangi historical sites.

According to Li and Yu (2013), as the customer passess through the AIDA steps till he takes action to purchase a product or service, each step has the tendency of decreasing customers in such that, at the end only few, the ones who make purchasing decisions remain. In this regard, the AIDA model becomes an inverted pyramid, as customers pass through each step. The main focus of marketing decision however is to make sure that, the lower end of the AIDA model pyramid becomes large (Ibid), meaning increasing potential customers who take action to make purchasing decisions.

Figure 2 THE AIDA MODEL

Source (Li& Yu, 2013)

2.1.1.2 Application of AIDA MODEL to Film Tourism Marketing

The AIDA Model has been used by some scholars in the study of film tourism and destination marketing (Hudson et al; 2010 & Hudson et al; 2013). AIDA model is the grand model in this thesis. It was used to evaluate the steps that, film tourists passed from creating interest to making a decision to travel (whether they heard about film tourism and Zamadamu programmes, if they watch or not, if they made interest to travel after watching and if they made a decision to travel because of watching the Zamadamu programme or not). This model was integrated with the travel motivations model Macionis (2004). In the latter, the researcher was interested to find out factors that motivated them to travel (Place, Performance or personality). Such factors asked were like research, touristic leisure and education among others.

It should be noted that, through the travel motivations model was also used to see how how the Zamadamu created awareness of destinations and made decisions to travel, the AIDA model is grand marketing theory in this thesis. But the Travel Motivations theory plays a unique guide in this thesis namely, to find out the “influence of film tourism on destination growth” (visitations, revenue, infrastructure and other negative effects on the researched cultural heritage tourist destinations). Combination of AIDA and travel motivation model, were similarly, used by Hudson et al; 2010 & Hudson et al; 2013). They used the AIDA model to find out the impact of product placement through the hierarchy of effects. They then moved to using the travel motivations model, to find out factors that motivated them to travel (Place, Personality and Performance). Their findings indicated that, interest, adventure, natural state and inexpensiveness were positive factors that influenced them to travel while the opposite included climate, cultural similarity and lack of language barriers were negative factors.

2.2 Theories of Travel Motivations

The thesis uses the theory of travel motivations (Macionis, 2004) as subsidiary theory to AIDA theory. It is referred as a framework for understanding film tourism (Hudson and Ritchie (2005). Its presentation, herein has included ideas of different film tourism theorists including, Macionis, (2004) and Hudson and Ritchie (2005).

A number of researchers have used the push pull factor film tourism motivation theories on film tourism research (O’Connor, 2010). This theory does not apply to film tourism research alone as related to travel motivations. Researchers have shown that film tourism field started using it in film studies in the recent years. Butler (1990) put this connection in clear terms when he revealed that, nowadays tourists have put little significance on reading materials as their important sources about destination information and depend much on visual information there by making films and television as the most reliable and significant sources of destination information.

The model for understanding film tourism presented below (fig. 1), represents ‘pull-push factors for tourist travel motivations. The model is presented so that the discussion that follows after its presentation makes ease understanding of film tourism.

Macionis (2004) explained the concept of film induced tourist through “Push and Pull theory”. He posited that, tourists are motivated to travel through ‘push’ and ‘pull’ factors (Also, O’Connor, 2010, Butler, 1990, Hudson & Ritchie, 2005). Push factors are those that induce a tourist to travel to certain destinations such as sunshine, sea, animals, scenery, mountains and rivers.

The second category of factors that may lead to a tourist making decision to travel is the ‘pull factors’ which according to Macionis (2004) and Hudson and Ritchie, 2006a) are divided into three categories which include (a) place (destination, destination attributes, landscape and scenery), (b) personality (cast, characters and celebrity and (c) performance (genre, plot and theme). Pull factors are those that predisposing tourist to travel (Macionis, 2004). In film tourism, “3 Ps-place, personality and performance represent pull factors where as its impacts on motivation; fantasy, escape, status, prestige, search for self identity, ego, enhancement, vicarious experience of the tourists represent the push factors (Ibid)

These travel motivations have also been well elaborated by Hudson and Ritchie (2005) model for understanding film tourism. Their model includes among other things film tourism marketing activities. Hudson and Ritchie (2005) found that, a film tourist is inspired by these factors (i) destination marketing activities (2) Film specific factors (iii) destination attributes. These factors result in pull-push motivations to film tourist (Smateera (2015). Film marketing activities are done when; the film is being premiered and distributed, as well as during each release window. Additional business activities can be created though film tourism can in turn encourage the extension and strengthening of a visitor reason (Hudson and Ritchie 2005). Film marketing activities are pull factors and are many ranging from support for film studios by destination marketers to encouraging tourist centres and governments to support or sponsor film studios in different forms such as offering tax grants, giving direct financial support to film makers or encouraging and allowing film makers to film in tourist destinations. Below is model for understanding film tourism.

Figure 3 A Model for Understanding Film Tourism

Motivation

Impacts

Source: Hudson & Ritchie, (2005)

Film tourist success as explained by Hudson and Ritchie (2005) in their Model for “Understanding Film Tourism” will depend on film specific factors, destination attributes, film commissions and government efforts. These have been identified by Hudson and Ritchie (2006) as film tourism marketing opportunities (marketing activities inclusive), or success factors for film tourism in their model for “Understanding Film Tourism” (fig. 1). Though this research concentrates on how film marketing activities can promote tourism, it should be understood that, marketing activities market the film, which depict destination scenery and attributes and in particular circumstances destination marketers cooperate with film commission and government departments to encourage film studios perform film tourism marketing activities.

2.2.1 3 P’s Concepts

According to Macionis (2004) the 3 P’s concepts (Pull factors) involve three important attributes due to which film induced tourists decide on certain destinations:

(i) Place

• Seen on movie or TV

• Location-where the movie is shot (or a particular scene) which can be fictional or non fictional and due to tourists’ attraction it becomes a film location. Film location has the potential for attracting tourists

• Studios-sets of large proportions that are tourists’ attractions themselves (Hollywood, Bollywood, etc). The result here is creation of desire to visit a place to visit a place because was it was seen on a movie. Piano Film was also a first promoter of New Zealand beaches (Waitakare region, Kareakare Beaches etc (Ibid).

(ii) Performance

This is the act of visiting a particular country or regions where a movie or TV series are produced that provoke tourist’s curiosity at the level of a screen play, storyline customs and traditions. The impact of a storyline (performance) could be explained as an escape from the real world and living through a vicarious experience seen on a movie or need to be part of another storyline as part of tourist fantasy. The Steel Magnolias and Field of Dream movies fall under these categories of movies. Beeton (2005) defines it as a seek for landscapes, people, experiences and fantasies portrayed through films.

(iii) Personality

This is the need to visit places where famous actors or main characters played famous scenes (moment of identification). Said otherwise, film actors may motivate tourists to visit a place. For example, Brave heart is a movie that has brought tourist popularity owing to its main protagonist, the hero character William Wallace (O’Connor, 2010)

2.2.2 Types of Film Tourists

The extent to which a tourist is moved to travel by contents of a movie or TV series determine the types of tourists depicted in fig. 1and table 1 namely: Specific, general and serendipitous tourists. This classification of tourist suggests that, the more a tourist is moved to travel by viewing a film, the more he/she escapes from authenticity of destination decision making factors. The result of a tourist motivation is a decision to travel which consequently may have positive and negative impacts on a destination visited (Smateera (2015).

These types of film tourists are categorized in accordance to the extent a tourist is motivated to visit destinations by a tourist product featured in a television or cinema (Macionis, 2004). Thus the more the individual becomes specifically film induced tourist, the greater the need for self actualization (Binelli and Ylenia (2012). Thus, a tourist’s action of visiting a destination as a result of viewing a movie represents a personal reward (Ibid). In understanding film tourism motivations, Macionis (2004) developed a continuum of film induced motivations, which include: Serendipitous, general and specific film tourists (Table, 1). According to Macinois (2004) and O’Conner (2010) a film induced tourist unlike a traditional tourist is not much concerned with authenticity. When choosing a destination a tourist places much attention to authenticity since the scene, place, storyline and character remain in their memory as they have seen and experienced them. Thus, traditional tourists visit places for several reasons such as travel costs, beauty of scenery, infrastructures and story told by a friend, news heard on radio etc. All of these may not be related to a film seen, thus placing importance to authenticity of factors causing tourists to visit destinations.

Table (1) below represents the kind of film tourist and type of motivation to travel as developed by Macionis, (2004a) The classification of a film tourist in fig. 1 has been used by many film tourism researchers and Macionis (2004a) defends this classification as a perfect one for examining film tourism motivations because it emphasizes on specific media representations and attributes that are crucial for tourists to make decisions to travel; it is fit for film tourism travel motivations because it answers such questions as: what is the tourist experience as it relates to a motivation to visit site specific destinations? What do the tourists desire to perform when they arrive at a film destination? And what is important to tourists in fulfilling a given motivation? (O’Connor, 2010, Macionis, 2004).O’ Connor (2010) justifies this by saying, it is the beauty and attraction of place that motivates people to travel to a well known destination or performance that induces a tourist to travel to fulfil a desire for escape or romance through vicarious experience. Lastly, it may be that a film star or personality has been showcased on a TV or film that has moved a tourist to travel to a tourist destination

The result of film tourism marketing activities as explained in Macionis, (2004) is an increased motivation to a tourist (Hudson and Ritchie, 2005). Many theories have been written on tourists’ motivation to travel as shown in model for understanding film tourism in figure (1), by Hudson and Ritchie, (2005).

Table 1 Travel Motivations and Kinds of Film Tourists

Source: O’Connor (2010)

However, the push and pull factors framework as represented in figure 1and table 1 that attempts to explain tourist motivations to visit a particular place has been criticized as being inefficient to explain motivations triggering tourist behaviour (O’Connor, 2010), on grounds that people may travel because they have been motivated by their own behaviour (hobby) or because they have been pulled by other external forces such as education and research.

2.2.3 Film Marketing Activities

The result of film tourism marketing activities as explained in Macionis, (2004) is an increased motivation to a tourist (Hudson and Ritchie, 2005). These marketing activities have been included in the model for understanding film tourism (Hudson and Ritchie, (2005), and Macionis, (2004), but they are explained in detail in this sub-section to better understand film tourism and theory of travel motivations in particular.

Sometimes called destination marketing activities Hudson and Ritchie (2005, 2006), film tourism marketing activities have a bearing impact on growth of tourism sectors. Research has found that, there is success of some destinations that have encouraged film producers in order to PR their regions or countries (Smateera, 2015). Such activities are carried out by destination marketing officers by collaborating with various tourism stakeholders (Hudson and Ritchie 2011). In some countries, Ministry of Tourism has made collaboration with industry stakeholders (Smateera, 2015). Such institutions can be film studios, film commissions, tourist destinations themselves or government ministries. A review of secondary research related to film tourism suggest that, some destinations have benefited by showing a significant rise in visitor numbers following a release of a film ( Hudsonand Ritchie 2006)

According to Hudson and Ritchie, (2006) there are 31 marketing activities marketers can engage in promoting film tourism. Given flexibility of marketing efforts as influenced by marketing environment and practice in a given marketing territory, it is the researcher’s belief that film tourism marketing activities can be more or less than those identified by Hudson and Ritchie (2006). Since this research deals partly with film tourism marketing activities and their influence on increasing tourist numbers in Tanzania, findings of this thesis are expected prove or disprove this assumption. Film tourism marketing activities according to Hudson and Ritchie (2006) can be executed before and after release of films (Hudson and Ritchie 2005, 2006, 2011).

2.2.3.1 Film Tourism Marketing Activities before Release

Some destination marketers encourage marketers to film in their locations for reasons not only of short term but long-term economic impacts (Hudson and Ritchie 2006). Support and sponsorship for film marketing activities is done by film commissions, film boards and tourism ministries using huge sums of dollars around the globe. An important strategy is having a certain segment of customers as a target. Britain targets Bollywood films to place Britain tourist destinations in their films (Hudson and Ritchie 2006)

Another important strategy is to hire public relations firms to market films. PR firms can be used to ensure maximum exposure in film stations and televisions. In this regard, product placement experts can be used to place destinations in films. This for example has been done by Chicago’s Office of films and entertainment (The Economist 2008)

Other preproduction activities done by DMO’s in promoting tourist destinations include location scouting, negotiation of credits for being used in films and destination guides in which DMO’s take the advantage of increasing number of consumers having interest in the marking of films ( Hudson and Ritchie 2006). Table 2, gives evidence of the number of preproduction marketing activities done by DMO’s around the globe:

2.2.3.2 Marketing Activities during Production of Film

Publicity is an important strategy during filming. It could be around many film marketing activities such as announcement of location being shot or publicity of film stars on world stations there by revealing and publicizing locations around which the film was shot (Hudson and Ritchie 2006). This strategy can create desire, eager and interest to visit tourist destinations even before release of films. Probably an important strategy in ensuring constant messaging about film locations is by being in touch with film producers ( Ibid) Management experts posit that “something planed is half done” (O’Connor, 2010). DMO’s may partner with film studios to produce marketing materials even before release of films.

2.2.3.3 Marketing Activities after Release of Films

The period following release of films is when many DMO’s get involved in marketing activities of film tourism. At this time it’s when many DMO’ capitalize on creation of interest for many tourists to visit destinations there by creating additional sites for visitations. Marketing activities for film tourism are created after every release window for all various sorts of film tourism genres like Cinema, video, DVD rentals and purchase, pay per view TVs and free television (Hudson and Ritchie, 2006).Research suggests that in typically successful film marketing opportunities film tourism success may exist for a period more than 25 years following release of a film (Ibid).

However, it is uncommon, even for a moderately successful film, to have a shelf life in access of 25 years (Hudson and Ritchie, 2006). A town of Claytown Georgia, continues to enjoy great attention from adaptation of James Dickey’s celebrated movie Deliverance (Hudson and Ritchie, 2016). According to Hudson and Ritchie (2006) some marketing techniques, which can be adopted after release of a film are include: (table 3).

(a) Collaborative Efforts with Media Companies

Destination marketers and film commissions have been noted to forge relationships to promote film tourism during production and after film release (Hudson and Ritchie 2006). Visit Britain for example, collaborates with film studios a year before release of a film (Hudson and Ritchie 2006). In some countries ministries of tourism act as soon as they receive a script. This is a case of Bahamas where film commissions are under the auspices of Ministry of Tourism. Bahamas which invests heavily in film tourism, invested $ 16 million after the release of a film The Sun Set.

Table 2 Marketing Activities before release of a Film

S/N Type of preproduction marketing activity Supporting Evidence Explanation

1 Announcement of grants to attract film tourists to film in tourist destinations Singapore Tourism Board announced a 3-year $7 million grant This was intentionally done to attract broadcasters and film makers to produce their work in Singapore

2 Appointment of PR specialists to place destinations in films Canada and Bahamas have employed Weber Shandwick, one of the biggest PR firms

PR specialists are employed to ensure maximum exposure of tourist destinations in films driven by role of film tourism as a marketing opportunity

3 Negotiation of credits to be used in films In 2005, Yukon and Culture Partnered with Italian and French distributer of the film Dernier Traupper This made it clear that the film was made in Yukon. Together with Industry partners, more than CDN $ 60,000 were invested to co-brand Yukon and Canadian travel destinations with Film distribution in Europe

4 Working with producers’ publicity throughout the film (i) The Lord of Rings

(ii) Visit Britain worked harder to get endorsement of Bollywood actors act in Britain destinations (i)During filming of the film media clippings indicated the film was being shot in New Zealand providing important early linkages between the film and the location

(ii)Aim was to make most Indians travel to Britain

5 Do publicity around activities of actors on location Captain Korellis’ Mondolin During the making of the film, publicity shots featuring 2 stars Nicolas Cage and Penelope Cruz were flashed throughout the world raising publicity of Cephalonia the location of the film considerably

6 Preparing marketing materials in advance of release of the film through collaborative efforts Collaboration between Sony Pictures and Colombia Pictures before release of film closer in UK starring Jude Lee, Julie Roberts and Clare Owen Such marketing materials were for example movie maps in which prospective visitors downloaded knowing many destinations of the UK

Source: Hudson and and Ritchie (2006)

Table 3 some marketing techniques After Release of a Film

a) Collaborative campaigns with film industry Development of movie maps

b) Guided tours and film walks

c) Promotion of hotels, guest houses, attractions and museums used in films

d) Having a dedicated website linking films and film locations Promoting destination during screening of the film

e) Having efforts dedicated to having media attention dedicated to film attention

f) Branding of destinations around movies

Source: Hudson & Ritchie (2005)

(b) Development of Movie Maps

According to Hudson and Ritchie (2006), this is a very successful move of film tourism. Development of movie maps should go hand in hand with communication of the same to the masses. Brochures and televising are options to achieve this goal. The first and most successful movie map has been published by VisitBritain in 1996. The movie map printed 200 film and movie locations from 60 years of British film history (Hudson and Ritchie 2006). It triggered wonderful media coverage at home and overseas leading to people of the world discovery of British places and consequent increase of tourist visitations (Dimitrios in Hudson and Ritchie 2006). In 2006, Santa Barbara Conference and Visitors Bureau produced the map sideways even before the movie was produced. Within weeks of premiere, visitors eager to see the dinners, wineries and hoteliers used in the film purchased 10,000 copies of the guide (Cherwin, in Hudson and Ritchie 2006)

(c) Guided Tours and Film Walks

These are publications of tourist sites and how to arrive at them following achievements after publishing a film. They can also involve organized tours from one place to a filmed destination (Hudson and Ritchie 2006). Normally these activities are done by tour operators in collaboration with destination markers. There are various guided tours and film walks in the world. Arther Formers’ Magazine (2004), in Hudson and Ritchie (2006), noted a magazine with 25 film tourist destinations with detailed packages developed just for film tourism. There can also be guided tours advertised in a website as in the case of Nicolaus Cage Film, Natural Treasure where Washing D.C advertised a natural treasure tour, a self guided tour that followed the footsteps of the actor ( Washington, D. C Convention and Tourism Corporation, 2005 in Hudson and Ritchie 2006). A three weeks guided tour was also organized by journey Latin America, a tour operator in the UK, which capitalized on the release of the Motorcycle Diaries a tour organized from Buenos Aires to Lima (Hudson and Ritchie 2006). Following the release of James Bond films and Harry Potter, several tour operators conducted film guides and several tour operators conducted film guides and guided tours. In New Zealand, there are several guided tours related to the Lord of Rings noted with Helicopters use around the Lord of Rings Country (Ibid).

(e) Hotels, Guest Houses, Attractions and Museums

These are used by tour operators and film makers to promote rooms and cities used by film stars during film filming as in the case of Crown Hotel at Amersham England, where film star Hugh Grant and Andie MacDowell used its rooms in a Four Wedding and Funeral film (Hudson and Ritchie 2006). In Tunisia, tourists still use a hotel used as a childhood home for film star Luke Skywalkers in the film Shirley Valentine (Jeffery (2004)

According to Hudson and Ritchie (2006), museums are noted and visited for the role of promoting the history of a particular film. For instance, the Istanbul Archeological Museum responded to its to its Ancient Troy exhibit after 9 years of its closure to respond to tourist demand after release of US$ 200 million Block Buster Troy in 2004

2.3 Linkage between Theory and Research

This section attempts to show linkage between theory and research, the interplay between independent, dependent and intervening variables and the kind of relationships between the variable. Selected theories are AIDA Theory (Strong, 1925) and Travel Motivations Theory/Model for Understanding Film Tourism (Macionis, 2004, Hudson and Ritchie, 2005). There are common variable linkages that, AIDA Theory and Travel Motivations Theory possess such as creating awareness, but they differ in others such as impacts of film tourism on tourism destination which belong to Travel Motivations Theory alone. These linkages are found in the figure below:

Linkages and Relationships between Theory, Research and Variables

Concept Variables Question/hypothesis/objective Type of relationship Theory Type

Appoint PR specialist Nature of industry collaboration

Roles

1.What is the nature of film tourism collaboration in Tanzania?-(O1)

2. What are the roles of each within the collaboration?-(O1) – Travel Motivations

Promotion, Marketing activities

Attention Advertising

Publicity (Film tourism, Zamadamu Programme)

Brochures

Awareness

Demand

Image

Information source (TV) 1.Explain how Zamadamu programme created image that led to your visitation (O2)

2.Do you consider yourself a fan for Zamadamu programme (image, loyalty)-(O2)

3.If Zamadamu programme was the main reason for you to visit Oldupai, rate its significance (04)

4. Have you ever heard of Film Tourism?- (O1)

5. Film tourism is not associated with viewing the Zamadamu programme (O4)

7. Where did you get information about Oldupai? (04)

1, 2, 3 Association

5. Independence of variables

Travel Motivations/AIDA

Film success, Film tourism

Impacts (positive, negative, television documentary, infrastructure development , business activities,

documentary film(,Zamadam programme),

Visitor numbers, economic growth, income increase.

1. To relate film tourism and tourism growth in cultural heritage tourist destinations in Tanzania (O3).

2. To discover the influence of film tourism on cultural heritage destinations’ image building in Tanzania (O3).

3.Visiting Oldupai was independent from watching the Zamadamu programme (O4)

4. Explain how the Zamadamu programme has changed tourist image after airing the Zamadamu programme (O 2)

5. Is there any evidence of destination loyalty change after airing the Zamadam programme?-(O2)

6. Do you think there are negative impacts associated with film tourism (O3)?

1,2 &3, 4 & 5 association Travel Motivations

Destination Attributes/ Sets desire (satisfaction), interests (benefits) Scenery

Animals

Rock Paintings

Land features

Oldupai Gorge, Kondoa, Ambani Caves Describe how destination attractions in the Zamadam programme led to wider market share and destination loyalty (O2) Association Travel Motivations/AIDA

Types of tourists/ General

Specific

Serendipitous

TUMS

Tourists 1.What is the place Zamadam in contributing to visitations-(04)

2. Local tourists would have not visited Oldupai gorge without watching the Zamadam programme (O4)

3. Where did you get information about Oldupai Gorge (O2)? 1&3 Association

2- Independence of variables Travel Motivation Theory

Television exposure Television watching time & frequency Have you ever watched Zamadamu Programme or be aware of Zamadamu programme aired by TBC?-(O1) association Travel Motivatiosn

Motivation/ Action (Pull, push, learning , film tourism (scenery, storyline),research etc)

Decision for visitation 1.Visiting Oldupai was independent from watching the Zamadamu –(O4)

2.Would you have visited Oldupai if you did not have links to Zamadamu programme (O4) association Travel Motivations/AIDA

Desire Satisfaction (factors visitation, education, research, film tourism, leisure) Factors influencing visitations-objective four (O4) Association AIDA

2.3.4 Film theory and Film studies

Connell, (2012) reviewed theories which can be of interest to this research. Her aim was to provide a more theoretical perspective on how film tourism can be well understood. He posited that, there are two main areas of concern to a film tourism researcher which is cinematic language through semiotics and the psychology of the viewing experience in relation to the perception of landscape in film tourism.

2.3.4. 1 Social cultural Psychology Theory of Film Viewing and Tourism

Social psychology which Rosa (2007a) calls cultural psychology, concerns cultural traditions and social practises which regulate, express, transform and influence the human psyche. It is the study of psyche and culture, person and context figure and ground and practise and fractional life (Shweder, 1999). Connel, (2012), proposed that, there is a body of literature within film theory that tries to establish the link between film viewing, and emotion. Emotion is the central tenet of concern in these studies. Early studies suggested that, visual and aural cues experienced in viewing film, can promote a strong emotional responses in an individual which can in turn trigger the same to travel to a tourist destination (Connell, 2012). Eberwein, (1984) argued that, in viewing cinematic films, the viewer gets what he termed psychological regression, in which a viewer, falls in a dream-like state which latter turns into a reality.

There are more recent studies that have tried to connect the relationship between film and the intention to travel (Smith, 2003).These studies adopt a more realistic approach between film and emotion and use both the cognitive and neurological approaches to explore emotional responses and the mood-cue approaches which create sympathy with certain types of characters (Ritchie, 2012). Smith (2003) gave emphasis on a variety of attributes which are not limited to characters, place and plot, but also grounded in the specific film effects, sound tracks and narratives. There are some studies that have gone beyond to conclude that, film background music is an essential ingredient for viewers emotional response (Cohen, 2001).`

2.3.4.2 Landscape studies and film theory (Semiotics theory)

This theory is essential in this study as it will be seen in its significance to assigning meanings to landscape features, featured in the Zamadamu programme for Amboni Caves Cultural Heritage Site in Tanga. Interesting to these studies is that, they connect geographical features and the culture of people, not only in filmed destinations but to film viewers in general (Shiel, 2001). Coincidentally emerging with film tourism, the emergence of film geography in 1990’s has added value to the interdisciplinary nature of film tourism (Connell, 2012). It is therefore imperative that, ‘film geography connects the film to social and cultural geographies of everyday life in communities’ through understanding of the place, people and film (Lukinbeal and Zimmerman (2006). It can therefore be concluded that, film studies connect films with the relationship between film setting, film objects and cultural symbols of the society (Shiel, 2001).

Landscape use in film is a matter of film producer planning in order to maximise the visual effects (Lifebvre, 2006) of the film on one hand and the geographic cultural symbolic representations on the other (Bordwell and Thomsan, 1993). Filmscape (presentation of setting that subsequently influences’ viewer perception) is enabled through the mise-en-scene (the design aspects production and arrangement of scenes in front of the camera). This is enabled through cinematography and editing process (Connell, 2012).

The significance of filmscape in film tourism is that, through symbolic representation of the landscape and its connection to community culture it turns the real landscape into imaginary fictional setting Lukinbeal and Zimmerman (2006). Moran, (2006), said: “cinematic fiction, form imaginary maps in the minds of the viewers” Cinematic landscapes are not for mere entertainment as we understand landscapes through experience, expression and cultural life (Cosgrove, 1998) through semiotic strategies (Lefebvre, 2006).

2.3.5 Conceptual Model for Developing Promotional Strategies

This research adopts a conceptual framework for developing promotional strategies of tourist destinations from Ebitu, (2010). Promotion refers to the communicative activity of Marketing (Ibid). It fills the perceptual and informational gaps that exist between suppliers of tourism (industry) and the tourists (market). Promotion involves the creation and dissemination of information that the tourist need to take a purchase and consumption decision.

Promotional strategy is a controlled integrated programme of communication methods and materials designed to present an organization and its products to prospective customers; to communicate needs satisfying attributes of a product in order to facilitate sales and thus contribute to long run profit performance (Engel, Warshaw and Kinnear; 1991). Promotional activities must be consistent with the needs of the tourists and integrated with the other elements of the marketing mix. Information is used to position, market and sell destinations (Tunnard and Haines, 1995).

Promotional strategies will serve as connection between the customers and the experience they are seeking (Ebitu 2010). Since tourists have expectations, it has become necessary that these requirements form the bases for the promotional strategies of tourism destination. The development of effective promotional strategies demands more than just being aware of promotion tools. The peculiarities of emerging tourism destination make it imperative for a special model that will cater for these complexities. Tourist demand is influence by tourist needs and motivations. These two influences form the theoretical underpinning of tourism product consumption (Ebitu, 2010). He posted that, the model has four components as shown in table 4 below:

Table 4 Components for Conceptual Model for Developing Promotional Strategies

i. Analysis of destination drivers

ii. Formulation of destination communication objectives

iii. Strategy formulation

iv. Selection of promotional tools

v. Selection of promotional tools

vi. Evaluation of the effectiveness of destination promotion

Source: Ebitu (2010)

2.3.5.1 Analysis of Destination Drivers

Destination drivers are those attributes of the destination that can be associated with the destination and that correspond with the values and actual needs of prospective tourists and have the likelihood of evoking an image that will stimulate tourist’ s interest to visit such a destination (Ebitu, 2010). The destination attributes usually form a destination’s attractiveness (Babe and George, 2008). The tasks at this stage are to determine the destination attributes that will build strong associations e.g. Mercedes= prestige, Safari=Tanzania/Kenya.

Motivation is the drive to satisfy the identified need. The concepts of push and pull factors are often used to explain the concept of need and motivation (Crompton, 1979; Dann, 1981). Push factors are the socio-psychological needs that will encourage a person to travel, while the pull factors are the ones in which the person is motivated, or aroused by the destination. The destination must possess attributes that matches the tourist‘s needs before the tourist will respond positively to the promotional strategy (Ebitu, 2010)

The attributes that show significant relationship with market segment are those ones that are conceptualized as destination drivers. Czechtourism (2004) suggest that a Destination Marketing Organization should produce one strong association with which tourists can connect the destination. This idea is supported by the following assumptions: perception is more important than reality and that success is not in the product, but in the minds of clients (Ebitu, 2010). The destination‘s significant associations are personified to give the destination‘s brand personality (Ibid)

The analysis of destination attributed above can be associated with Zamadamu programme. In viewing the Zamadamu, destination attributes can clearly be perceived through careful narrations of the cultural heritage wealth. In watching the programme(s), the researcher noted Zamadamu programme narrator mentioning destination attributes like, ‘the destination where the origin of man is found (for Oldupai Gorge), ‘the cultural heritage site of the world and where oldest human drawings are found’ (for Kondoa Irangi), ‘a destination of mysterious rock features’ (for Amboni Caves) and ‘a destination of oldest stone tools’ (for Isimila, in Iringa)

Figure 4 Conceptual Framework for Promotional Strategy of Emerging Tourism

Analysis of destination drivers

Formulation of destination communication objectives

Destination promotion strategy formulation

Selection of promotion tools Evaluation of the

Effectiveness of Destination Promotion

Source: O’Connor, (2010)

2.3.5.2 Formulation of Destination Communication Objectives

According to Ebitu (2010) before the strategy is formulated, the destination promotion objectives should be established. For a comprehensive articulation of the destination promotion objectives, a knowledge of the VICE Model is necessary (Tourism Recreation research and Education Centre, 2004). VICE (visitor, industry, communities and environment) is an acronym for an international model that specifies the stakeholders’ expectation in a tourist destination. Destination communication is usually aimed at achieving the following stakeholders’ objectives: (i) Visitor (welcome, involve and satisfy visitors), (ii) Industry (achieve a profitable and prosperous industry), (iii) Communities (engage and benefit host communities), Environment (protect and enhance the locals).

According to Arther (2002), a successful sustainable tourism calls for closer engagement. It involves having clear goals and objectives of where you want to go, setting these goals within the constraints of legal and social rules and then negotiating with relevant interest groups to try to incorporate their needs in their mix.

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