Global Paper Products

Global paper products consumption has tripled over the past three decades and is expected to grow by half again before 2010. Recent decades have introduced a technology promising to replace our need for these physical, costly and waste inducing products, so much that a "paperless office" was a commonly used term introduced back in the 1970's.
At this day and age, as information flow is growing faster and wider spread, the human society's tendency to print not only does not diminish, but actually increases. European paper production has increased an average of 2.5% per year and has been almost in constant growth since the turn of the century, declining only in 2008 following the economic downturn1. World demand is expected to grow by 2.1% per year until 2020.
Our work to print bares a heavy environmental cost. In addition to the obvious environmental footprint caused by paper consumption, as we will show below, the increased toner and ink usage also have an environmental price. Since it is not practical to expect that the increasing environmental awareness will actually change human tendency, a more realistic and subtle approach is needed and understands that our tendency to print can actually grow.
1.1 Background of European Paper Industries
To maximize the efficient use of wood material and limit its impact on biomass availability, the paper industry prolongs the life of its wood resources by reusing old paper as feedstock in its production process. As recycling of old paper has steadily increased over the last decades in Europe, today paper for recycling forms an important raw material for most of the European paper industry. During paper production using paper for recycling various solid by-streams are formed which contain unwanted materials or useful materials that are accidentally removed from the production line.

1.2 Objectives of European Paper Industries
The Objective Of This Report Is:
To provide an overview of possible applications, both industrially applied technologies as technologies that are in development, which can increase the economic and environmental value of paper production by-streams.
Reducing Paper Consumption
European paper industries are manages the entire organization's printer fleet, cutting paper demands by up to 20%. Using the print management capabilities you can ensure reduction in paper consumption by:
' Eliminating unwanted printing that usually ends up as waste can be achieved by determining page quotas for users, keeping track of user print volumes, omitting pictures.

' N-up function compresses more than one page into a single sheet and serves as a more economical use of paper. For example, 2-up compression will reduce print volume by 50%.

2.0 Approach
In product policy, European Paper Industries works to identify potential reduction of products' environmental impacts. It strives to communicate the safety of paper products and deals with environmental labeling and foot printing.
This report shows the results of three tasks:
Task 1:
Create an overview of by-streams of paper recycling production in Europe. In this task information from both desk study and data from EPI was used to determine the type of solid by-streams created during paper recycling production in Europe.

Task 2:
Create an overview of application technologies for solid by-streams. In this task a desk study was performed in combination with available knowledge from the EPI and KCPK network to create a list of application options that can be used for paper production solid by-streams.
Task 3:
Creating fact sheets for each application technology for each application technology it was determined to which type of solid by-stream the technology applies as well as general information regarding the process, legislations, environmental implications and finances. The information was inserted into fact sheets.
2.2. Economic and Environmental Aspects
The Environmental Impact of Toner & Ink Consumption
Alongside the impact of paper consumption exit the devastating consequences of toner and ink usage. The environmental impact of these consumables relates to their entire lifecycle, their manufacturing, the pollution that they cause during the printing process, and finally their disposal.

The Environmental Cost of Manufacturing
It takes a gallon of fossil oil to produce one laser cartridge, and 2-1/2 ounces of oil to manufacture each new inkjet cartridge. In addition, the energy used to manufacture 350 million cartridges is enough to make tens of thousands of SUVs. Ingredients in toner cartridges are toxic and contain some amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the form of solvents. GHGs emissions from manufacturing a single mono toner cartridge have been calculated to approximately 4.8 Kg CO2. Using a remanufactured cartridge still emits an estimated 2.4 Kg CO2.
Toner and Ink Disposal
The average toner cartridge is composed of 40 percent plastic, 40 percent metal and smaller amounts of rubber, paper, foam and toner. Each year over 350 million cartridges are thrown out. Approximately thirteen cartridges are discarded every second, in the U.S. alone in 2007, The problem gets even worse considering that each cartridge becomes 3.5 pounds of solid waste sitting in a land fill and can take up to 450 to 1000 years to decompose, as it includes mixed resin, one of the most difficult plastics to recycle.
Economic and Environmental Aspects
The production of new products from the by- streams has both an economic value as a sustainability value. By-streams need to be managed within paper mills. The costs for land filling and waste disposal are high. By using application technologies land filling costs are reduced. Potentially the application technology can even create a net profit. The economic value is the result of the avoided management costs and the market value of the additional product.
EPI supports the pulp and paper industry's efforts to reduce its environmental footprint. It published a guidance document 'Ten toes' on the carbon foot printing in 2007 and is currently
preparing guidance on water footprints for the sector. EPI is also actively following the on-going development of environmental footprints. The European Commission is assessing the value of foot printing tools for policymaking, in particular in the way they relate to the resource efficiency initiative.
2.3. Limitations to the Scope
' Due to the large diversity in waste management options and the unavailability of information on exact costs and benefits of the technologies, the exact economic added value cannot be determined.

' Due to complexity of determining the added sustainable value of using by-streams, the added sustainable value is not quantified. This prevents comparison of the sustainable value between the presented application technologies and incorrect conclusions.

' Due to complexity of determining the added sustainable value of using by-streams, the added sustainable value is not quantified. This prevents comparison of the sustainable value between the presented application technologies and incorrect conclusions.

' The list of application technologies is inherently not exhaustive as development of technologies takes place world-wide and in an increasingly fast pace. The inventory of technologies in this report provides a good representation of the total range of available technologies, and indicates the wide acknowledgement of the potential of solid by-streams to be converted to higher value added applications.
However, Further Progress Is Essential, Including:
' Reducing paper consumption in North America by ending wasteful practices and inefficiency;

' Increasing the utilization of recycled fiber in printing and writing papers, where the greatest demand on the environment occurs;

' Halting the conversion and loss of natural forests to monoculture plantations;

' Preventing illegal and controversial fiber from controversial sources outside North America from entering the supply chain;

' Accurately measuring and reducing the greenhouse gas emissions from using forests for bio-energy;

' Accurately measuring and reducing the greenhouse gas emissions from loss of above ground and soil based carbon stocks entailed in harvesting natural forests and converting natural forests to plantations;
' Eliminating all discharges of dioxin from the paper industry to the environment;

' Optimizing the paper recycling system for growth in domestic manufacturing of recycled pulp; including resolving the challenges created by single stream collection programs that drive up the cost of recovered paper fiber and increase contamination;

' Increasing capital investment in energy efficiency and recycled paper production and,

' Resisting the spread of genetically engineered trees into commercial production.

The use of paper for recycling as a raw material involves a multi-stage treatment of paper for recycling including, separation and elimination of contaminants in order to obtain recycled pulp. For good recyclability, paper products have to be repulpable and adhesives have to be removable. That is important for all types of paper products.

In paper making solid by-streams are produced during various production steps such as: pulping, high density cleaning, prescreening (flotation), forward cleaning (fine screening, reverse cleaning), and whitewater clarification.

The Solid By-Streams Can Be Divided Into
' Primary sludge
' Secondary sludge
' Deinking sludge
' Coarse rejects
' Screen rejects
Primary and secondary sludge are generated from the residue water treatment unit from respectively a mechanical-chemical or a biological method. Secondary sludge is therefore also called biological sludge. Both contain organic matter, for primary sludge mainly cellulose, and minerals. Often they are then mixed together resulting in a 'mixed sludge'. Secondary sludge from anaerobic waste water treatment quite often has value as start-up sludge.
Deinking sludge is generated during recycling of paper. Separation between ink and fibers is driven by flotation process, where foam is collected on the surface of flotation cells. The generated deinking sludge contains minerals, ink and cellulose fibers .Coarse rejects are produced during early filtration steps in which large non-fiber materials such as plastics are removed. These rejects also still contain cellulose fibers. Screen rejects are produced during filtration steps with screens with very small slots to remove pulp possibly containing stickiest that might disturb the production process and quality of end product. Screen rejects have a high content of cellulose fiber.

New Organogram:
In 2011 the Competitiveness Committee changed into a network structure and a new committee was established: Innovation Committee. EPI now has five permanent committees as shown in the organogram below. In 2011 further structural changes were implemented: the function of the Managing Director was renamed Director General and a new position was created and filled: the Deputy Director General

Highest Governance:
The Board of EPI receives no remuneration for its activities and the staff of EPI is subject to periodical evaluation. The Board has clear voting rules for decision making and anti-competition rules are applied to all meetings. Each area of activity has a chosen sponsor at Executive Committee who acts as a mentor to the Committees and groups. An agreed work program is developed and implemented each year and the Board ensures that all activities reflect environmental, economic and social topics. In all meetings EPI follows its 'Guidelines for Compliance with EU competition rules' that were especially prepared for EPI.
Stakeholder and Supply Chain Action
It will multiply and spread the positive effects of sustainable thinking. The good practices we recommend aim to improve the supply, the availability and use of resources. These are developed using the valuable knowledge that we gain from stakeholders. This goes hand-in-hand with the goal to be competitive globally and strengthen the market for paper products. Ecological risks and regulation issues result in collaborations with many stakeholders and expert networks.
Paper is a credible partner in the evolution of the low-carbon economy. It is made of a renewable raw material and its production relies mostly on renewable energy. The sector is characteristically responsible and invests strategically in technical research and insight studies. We work to optimize our use of natural resources, extend the role of paper in our lives, and improve the health and safety of people and the environment. Our aim is to communicate our performance and to improve the under-standing of our industry and its products.
Report Parameters
EPI staff met with stakeholders in 2010 to deter-mine ideas and improvements/changes to the last Sustainability Report published in 2009. An internal working group was formed to specify further the structure of the new report according to those comments and to recurring themes from their work as well as main completed projects by EPI staff in 2009 and 2010.
Reporting Methodology
Data generation at EPI relies on our national association members and pulp and paper company measurements. Information is collected from the available sources and with a view to ensure accuracy and robustness to avoid risks of overlapping and gaps. Standardized definitions were developed for all indicators. The completeness and accuracy of reported data are confirmed by EPI's Statistics department

4.1 Introduction
Until recently, land filling has been a major route for sludge disposal. However, both the increase in sludge quality and the legislative framework are militating for other management options. Land filling is currently no longer applied/allowed in most countries. The disposal tax is the major driver for finding alternative solutions. The application technologies described in this chapter form alternatives with (potentially) higher economic and sustainable value.
The application technologies are categorized as:
' Use of by-streams as such
' Conversion to product
' Conversion to energy
' Conversion to energy carrier
Use of by-streams as such
The by-stream is the end product in its current state. No additional processes are required.
Conversion to product
The by-stream requires processing in order to acquire the end product(s). Depending on the technology a residual is left-over.
Conversion to energy
An energy conversion technology is used in order to convert the energy content of the by-stream into heat or electricity (or both). Depending on the technology a residual is left-over.
Conversion to energy carrier
The by-stream is converted into an energy carrier. This product can be used by the mill or by third parties as fuel. Depending on the technology a residual is left-over after the processing and/or the combustion of the product.

European Recovered Paper Council (ERPC)
The ERPC has been working since 2000 to promote paper recycling: since 2006 the ERPC has represented, in a unique way, the relevant industry sectors along the whole paper value chain and the entire lifecycle.
The work of the ERPC is particularly focused on design for environment and recyclability. It has adopted science-based scorecards for assessing the deink ability and ease of adhesives removal from printed paper products. The ERPC publishes an annual monitoring report on progress made towards quantitative and qualitative targets. This industry-led move towards a circular economy, covering the whole lifecycle of the material, relies on a level of cooperation unmatched industry.
It is an approach founded on waste hierarchy and resource efficiency, and thus reflects the priorities of the European Commission and the political ideals of the green economy. Every two years the ERPC organizes the European Paper Recycling Awards, an event which has been held three times. A new European Declaration on Paper Recycling was launched in September 2011, which sets a target of a 70% recycling rate by 2015 and focuses on resource efficiency. The new Declaration also defines the policy conditions needed to achieve higher recycling rates.
4.2. Executive Summary
The European Paper Industries (EPI) publishes the State of the Industry Report as a resource for policy-makers, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), the paper industry, large volume paper purchasers and other stakeholders to monitor key indicators of environmental sustainability in the North American pulp and paper industry. This 2011 installment highlights some of the key trends in these indicators over the past decade.
Even in the digital age, the paper industry's global social and environmental footprint is enormous. Rising global consumption and the race to provide cheap paper has resulted in sustained market pressure to push deeper into previously unindustrialized forest landscapes, and to convert high-diversity, carbon-rich natural forests to fast-growing, biologically barren tree plantations. The industry is a driving influence on land use decisions and has profound implications for labor, pollution and climate change.
Paper products are integrated into nearly every aspect of our daily lives. And paper is indisputably important to society. Manufacturing paper will be a major industry for the foreseeable future. However, providing the benefits of paper to people in a way that does not diminish the earth's natural resources or result in inequities and conflict remains one of society's most critical and pressing challenges.
The EPI formed to coordinate the efforts of conservation organizations working to increase corporate social responsibility in paper production and consumption. Members of the Environmental Paper Network work in diverse ways but share a strong connection and a clear, common purpose. They provide solutions and advocate for change to encourage market shifts to more environmentally responsible production and consumption of paper products. EPN is now a network of over 100 organizations working collaboratively to advocate for a cleaner, less destructive paper industry.
In the last few years paper machines have been subject to constant improvements in design and construction which have further reduced the use of resources and environmental impact. This process can be expected to continue, particularly in smaller and older mills. As well as new low-carbon products, new advanced processes offer great hope for the future. These include improved mechanical pulping, lignoboost and biomass gasification. All these processes offer new ways to optimize the use of raw materials, improve energy efficiency and develop new products and applications based on pulp and paper for recycling.

The employment issues are regarding for safe workplace at the heart of the European paper industry's business practice. As a result of the economic downturn the number of people employed by the European paper industry fell by 9.3% to 224,129 between 2008 and 2010. Recent initiatives underscore the importance the industry attaches to its social responsibilities through investment in staff training and striving for higher safety standards. Highlights include:
' Ongoing efforts to decrease accidents in the workplace and adoption of better alert systems.
' Initiating a European social dialogue with the European mining, Chemical and Energy Workers federation (EMCEF)
In 2010, EPI initiated a European social dialogue with the European Mining, Chemical and Energy Workers Federation under the auspices of the European Commission. This dialogue aims to facilitate the exchange of information and good practice among the social partners and to take joint advocacy initiatives with the workers organizations vis-??-vis the European Institutions' in policies that have the potential to affect jobs. In the context of this dialogue, EPI and EMCEF are developing a guide of good health and safety practices for the paper industry that will be published in 2012
The health and occupational safety of its workers is of paramount importance for the paper industry. In 2003, EPI committed itself to the target of zero accidents in the workplace. Though the decrease in the number of accidents causing an absence of more than three days off work can be partly attributed to falling employment levels, steps have been taken to improve safety in the workplace. More efficient alert systems have been introduced and companies are increasingly aware of the role prevention has to play in reducing the number of days lost as a result of health and safety issues.

Social dialogue is the ideal platform to address new challenges faced by the industry: ageing staff, lack of interest among young workers for the industry, gap in knowledge transmission, etc. Based on a mapping of the impacts of these challenges and the identified needs, EPI intends to develop recommendations for mentorship, vocational education and training (including through e-learning and multimedia), and other ways to attract young talent.
Emissions trading
Almost all pulp and paper mills are part of the EU Emission Trading System, the EU ETS. Just over 1,000 installations have been permitted within this scheme, which has been in place since 2005. In 2009 and 2010 EPI was closely involved in the implementation phase of the new rules for emission trading which come into force from 2013. The mill's emissions have to be covered by emission credits, which are partly received for free and partly have to be bought at government auctions. In recent years a common methodology has been developed by the Commission and member states for the third trading period, 2013-2020.
' Waste streams
Production residues can be measured per tonne of finished product. Reducing this level will increase resource efficiency and help avoid greenhouse gas emissions.
Water interest in our water resources has increased significantly in recent years. Fresh water extraction, scarcity and drought, and water efficiency are topics receiving a high level of policy attention. Policymakers view water sustainability as a useful indicator of climate change adaptation and EPI paid close attention to recent developments and policy debates.
Private initiatives on water stewardship, management standards and foot printing calculations are proliferating. EPI participates in various forums related to water use, namely the Alliance for Water Stewardship, the European Water Partnership and the Water Footprint Network. Water issues are local and carry different weight across Europe. Starting from a local mill level, but with the entire value-chain of the paper product in mind.
The amount of water in wood, recycled paper, and purchased chemicals is small, around a quarter of the consumptive water losses.
European pulp and paper companies manage and improve efficiency of the water resources used at mills and the water abstracted from surface and ground waters. In doing so, they will continue analyzing water availability, environmental impact at a local level and associated risks. The analysis will include an improved reporting mechanism on water.
' Transport
Minimizing transport impact
The European paper industry is looking for cost-efficient, flexible and sustainable transport solutions to the main challenges that it faces ' i.e. congestion, increasing emissions and rising costs.
The European paper industry makes use of the three basic modes of transport ' rail, road and water - but as with many industry sectors; road transport is the main mode for European distribution.
The service delivered by rail freight companies in most EU countries is defined by high cost, poor reliability and fragmented networks, a situation which continues to deteriorate. It is therefore unsurprising that rail freight has lost market share to road transportation. A vast majority of the yearly 300 million tonnes of the paper industry raw materials and finished products are trans-ported by road in Europe.
Around 55% of road transport journeys are long distance trips, 30% are within a region and the remainders are local distance. Road transport provides flexibility in terms of departure time and destination, and it is the fastest mode of transport for distances up to about 500 km.
In Need Of Higher Efficiency
Transport and logistics costs average 10% of turnover and cost increases are expected in the coming years due to higher fuel prices, further internalization of external costs, increasing congestion and rising road charging ' the Euro vignette Directive ' as well as stricter safety standards. All modes of transport should strive for efficiency. For road transport, higher weight and dimensions limits for trucks and promotion of the European Modular System ' a system that allows a highly flexible combination of loading units - would definitely improve efficiency and reduce GHG emission.
Management approach ' Environment
The environment is central to all EPI activities and a large proportion of its resources are focused both horizontally and vertically on ensuring the industry minimizes its impacts across the EU. All Directors at EPI have responsibility for developing and managing environmental activities and policies. The Environment Director works with his colleagues and their expert committees, particularly with the Environment Committee, which are made up of experts from national paper associations and paper companies, to develop and implement clear and well-defined actions on behalf of the industry. All activities proposed are scrutinized and eventually adopted by the EPI Board. An important role is to monitor environmental key performance indicators (KPIs), which EPI reports on every two years. Water, waste and emissions are clearly the responsibility of the Environment department, which is working on foot printing methodologies and responds to information requests from EU agencies and institutions.

6.0 Responsible Virgin Fiber Sourcing
The pillar of the Common Visions is the responsible sourcing of all virgin fiber. The paper industry supply chain has impacts on forests in every corner of the world, including some of the most threatened and endangered. In North America, the paper industry has maintained a major presence and influence on the health of forests; the U.S. South produces more paper than any other region in the world. However, significant change has occurred in the industry in the patterns of ownership of large tracts of forests in the United States. Vertically integrated paper companies have shed their vast forest landholdings, primarily to large timber investment management organizations.
Transformation in the marketplace has been a driving force behind meaningful progress towards forest conservation goals in North America. Several new collaboration agreements between the forest and paper industry and environmental NGOs, including the world's largest conservation initiative the Canadian Boreal Forest Agreement, are laying the foundation for unprecedented conservation achievements across North America. Even with the progress that has been achieved, today the conversion of diverse, natural forests to plantations, the logging of old-growth temperate rainforests and the harvesting of intact carbon rich Boreal Forest remain immediate threats to forests and their biodiversity and carbon-storage capacity. There are high-stakes for North America's forests and the paper industry in the coming years. These historic agreements must be implemented successfully to achieve their full potential. Meanwhile, ongoing challenges remain from major companies. That continues to practice business-as-usual and have not matched leadership commitments.

The next pillar is the common visions cleaner production in the paper industry. Pulp and paper manufacturing is chemically intensive and the paper industry is one of the largest industrial consumers of energy and freshwater in North America.
Measuring Environmental IMPACTS
The European Commission is increasing environmental legislation for products on the market, mainly through increased harmonization of EU product policy. EPI therefore initiated an internal project to map existing paper product criteria used at the EU and national level for eco labelling and public procurement schemes. The objective was to look at how they could be brought together at the European level and applied consistently to all measures, instead of having to start all over every time the Commission sets out a policy or new measures. EPI supports the pulp and paper industry's efforts to reduce its environmental footprint. It published a guidance document 'Ten toes' on the carbon foot printing in 2007 and is currently preparing guidance on water footprints for the sector. EPI is also actively following the on-going development of environmental footprints. The European Commission is assessing the value of foot printing tools for policymaking, in particular in the way they relate to the resource efficiency initiative. A pilot project is being carried out with participants from several sectors, including one EPI member company
Safe Products
An Industry Guideline for those paper and board packaging products which come in contact with food was published in 2010. This voluntary guide sets high standards for paper-based food-contact packaging and, for the first time, consolidates the rules for manufacturing paper for contact with food into one document.
An independent peer review stated in 2009 that this is an improvement on previous guidelines and legislation. 'In our opinion, the current draft of Industry Guidelines has built successfully on a number of themes drawn out from pre-existing member state legislation and the Council of Europe resolution, with its key strengths being the clear rules it offers for the use of recycled fibers and multilayer materials. It also benefits from containing provisions relating to Good Manufacturing Practice and a Declaration of Compliance.
Forest Management
Policymakers have increasingly focused on Europe's forests in recent years. In 2010 the EU produced a green paper on 'Forest Protection and Information in the EU: Preparing forests for climate change' that aims to improve the coherence of forest-related policies in Europe.
Although, the European Commission is currently reviewing its 1998 forest strategy and a new forest action plan is anticipated. The EU's timber regulation 'laying down the obligations of operators placing timber products on the EU market' aims to prevent wood entering the market from illegal sources from 2013.
European Paper Industries are contributing to these policy initiatives. The ongoing discussion on the future of the Common Agricultural Policy post-2014, in particular, represents a unique 2011 is the International year of forests, which EPI was proud to support and opportunity to increase the amount of available biomass and its mobilization in Europe. Also, the EU's timber regulation 'laying down the obligations of operators placing timber products on the EU market' aims to prevent wood entering the market from illegal sources from 2013.
7. Conclusions
Paper recycling various solid by-streams are formed which contain unwanted materials or useful materials that are accidentally removed from the production line.
These streams are currently considered by many as rejects that need to be disposed at least costs possible, while other potential application possibilities may be present which can generate more value from the reject streams.
Proof of value from by-streams
The growing amount of technologies that focus on creating value from paper production rejects indicates the general acknowledgement of the value from paper production by-streams. This trend will continue as the environmental legislation continues to pressure use of fossil fuel and waste of primary material. This situation provides the paper industry with pressure from high energy prices and feedstock prices on the one hand but also with the increase of the potential value per unit of paper for recycling on the other hand due to increasing demand for rejects or product from rejects by third-parties. The value from the by-streams therefore is of great importance to the economic feasibility of the paper production process.
Applications for by-streams
The types of application technologies for paper production by-streams vary greatly. The by-streams can be used as feedstock in production, converted into energy or energy carriers, or used in their current state. The technologies used to achieve these application forms also vary from conventional (composting, incineration) methods to highly innovative (fermentation to produce bio-chemicals) technologies. For own use the paper mills can use energy conversion options, separate the fibers from the foil fraction (in coarse rejects), use sludge as feedstock for production of lower paper grades, and recycle minerals from sludge ashes.
On-site or central
The use of the application technologies can often either be performed externally (central) or on-site. In both cases the technological installation can be owned by either the paper mill or a third party.

Cluster forming
In order to achieve economies of scale necessary to be economically feasible, paper mills and/or third parties can form clusters. This can ensure meeting the material input needed for large scale installations.
8. The Future
Our future is not only solid by-streams can be used to generate high value products. Paper making has many other by-streams. Currently by-streams in the paper industry can generally be classified into:
' Solid others
' Solid by-streams removed from pulp and waste water treatment operations
' Liquid by-streams (e.g. waste water)
' Gaseous by-streams (e.g. exhaust from CHP, drying section of paper machine)
' Furthermore, potential new by-streams may arise from changes in production processes
The opportunities for improving the production processes are nearly endless as for each by- stream applications can be found. Heat losses can be captured and used for low temperature processes or through innovation even used for high temperature processes. By extracting and isolating unwanted components from the water circuit enables both the production of additional high value by-products as well as the closing of the water circuit, thereby terminating the need for fresh water. 'By-streams' are full of components that may be unwanted in the paper production process but are of high value for other industries; isolation of these components creates additional high-value by-products.
This Ambition Also Leads To More Options:
' Isolation of valuable components out of pulp and process water
' Changing the primary papermaking process in such a way that it creates by-streams with higher value.

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