Wage earning differences is one of the controversial issues in most of the countries. A good example is in the United States whereby wage differences between men and women has aroused a discussion as to why so many women are neglected in most of the job activities leading to the huge gap in their wages. Throughout the paper, am going to talk about why the women wages are substantially lower than men wages, how the economic status of women has changed in the recent decades, how have the educational choices and career goals of women changed and will this affect their future earnings, whether employment discrimination is a major cause of wage earning differences between men and women and lastly whether Physical strength is important in some jobs.
Wage earning differences between men and women is one of the areas where most people should address. This is because of the role of woman in most of the societies. In most of the jobs, you find that men have been given the first priority as when compared to women. This is because women are seen as less effective and less productive. Women are usually neglected in most of the jobs hence making men to have higher wages than women despite their roles in the society. When people talk of comparing the earning between men and women, you find that women earnings are always lower. Many put it that, men’s earnings can be used as a yardstick while women’s earnings can be used as a percentage of men. (Furchtgott-Roth, and Stolba, 1999).
Why the earnings of women are substantially lower then men
The wages of women are substantially lower than the wages of men. One of the reasons for this is the number of hours they usually work for. You find that men can work for more hours as when compared to women. This is because a woman is supposed to take care of the whole family unlike men. So in this case, you find that while men can work for extra hours or even can work overnight, women can not do the same because of their role in the family. They have to make sure that the family is protected unlike most men. So in this case, you find that in the United States, the wages for men are slightly higher than the wages for men since they can work for extra hours. Women wages are also slightly lower than men’s wages and this is shown in the type of occupation they work for. Most of the women work for lower wage occupations which lack the various benefits which go with that type of job. This lower wage jobs lacks so many benefits say health benefits, insurance allowance, transport allowances hence leading to lower status. As a result, you find that at the end of the day, women will get low wages. (Furchtgott-Roth, and Stolba, 1999).
Another reason why wages for men is slightly higher than the wages for women is the type of work they do. In the United States, you find that most of the men are involved in working in industries whereby women can not work. This is because the job done there is hard for women to bear. For example, men can work in manufacturing industries unlike women who only work in small industries hence leading to their lower wages. At the end of the day, you find that men will have earned more wages than women.
The type of qualification can affect the wages given to these people. For example, during the early 60s and 70s, women were not as educated as men. Most of the men enrolled for higher education unlike women. As a result, these men could get good jobs which are more paid as compared to the jobs which women got. This is because women could only work in less competitive areas which required less skill hence getting lower wages. (Furchtgott-Roth, and Stolba, 1999).
How the economic status of women changed in recent decades
The economic status of women has changed in the recent decades in the United States. Women are said to have made a tremendous progress towards achieving economic equality and this is during the last few decades.Nontheless, in the United States, women earn less wages, are also less likely to earn any poverty and also live in a severe poverty as when compared to men. The economic opportunities for women vary tremendously in different regions of the United States. Several factors have led to the economic wellbeing of women and some of these include the different industries where these women work, women business ownership, women poverty among others. Women’s earning are said to have become more important to the families financial status. As a result, women are still increasing their economic status. This is because of the education women are getting just like men. You find that women at the United States enroll in the higher institutes of education hence getting higher qualifications. It is out of these qualifications that women are in a position to secure higher jobs which are well paid. In the job market, you find that women are involved in most of the economic activities unlike in the early 60s and 70s whereby most of the women were not involved in these activities. For example, women in professional and managerial positions and also those who own their businesses earn more and are also more flexible hence leading to a higher economic status. Women are working in most of the industries hence leading to the increase of their economic status. You find that women are also aspiring for presidential seats and a good example is seen in the United States whereby Senator Hillary Clinton is aspiring to become the next president of the United States. This is a good example for women to rise up and fight for their status. This shows that the economic statuses for women has raised and are in a position to get higher wages just like men. (Rose, and Heidi, 2004).
How have the educational choices and career goals of women changed and will this affect their future earnings?
Educational choices and career goals have changed so much as from the early 60s and 70s. Today, you find that women are enrolling in higher education. They are also doing the same courses just like men. Women in the United States are also becoming professors and this is out of education. As a result, you find that it is out of education that women are getting in highly paid jobs hence decreasing the wage gap. They are also becoming ministers just like men hence this shows the strength of a woman. This quite clearly proves that with the coming time, women will also be doing some of the jobs which men can not even do and this is out of their hard work. Career goals will also change the wages for women in future. Women have set high goals in their career choices. This is shown in the type of education they get. They are still aspiring for higher levels of education as per their career goals. It is out of these goals that they will be in a position to change their wages.
Educational choices and career goals of women is successful to the growth of every state and country. You find that when women can effectively contribute as full and equal participants in politics, work and community life, they unleash their potentials and hence this can lead to higher earnings in return. (Rose, and Heidi, 2004).
Is employment discrimination the major cause of wage earning differences between men and women?
To some sense, discrimination is not a major factor to the low earnings by women in the United States. This is because women are getting higher education just like men and also in some jobs women are seen to be more effective than men. Today, in the United States, women are less discriminated. This is because of their capabilities to perform hard jobs which some men can not even do. But for this case, the major problem leading to their differences in their earning is out of their incapability and potentials. Woman is generally weak. This means that she is less productive as when compared to men. So in this case, you find that most of the women do not involve themselves in to jobs which require a lot of energy. As a result, you find that they can be discriminated in certain jobs hence leading to low earnings as when compared to men.
Another major cause of the widening wage gap is racial inequality. You find that it’s due to the different races that most women are discriminated in various jobs. As a result, you find that their wages are usually lower than that for men. The companies who employ these people should look for ways to correct this discrimination as it was quoted by Hartmann and said “although discrimination may not be intentional, companies should be intentional about regularly reviewing their compensation structures and also promotion records in order to correct these patterns of discrimination”. (Hartmann,2004).
Is Physical strength important on some jobs?
Physical strength is not important in jobs. What are most important are the qualifications of this person. This is because where will you apply your strength without good knowledge of whatever you are doing? So in this case, you find that physical strength is less important since we all have potentials to do any job. Many women have proved this by occupying professional jobs. Others are still aspiring for presidential seats and it’s not only in the United States but also in other countries and a good example is in Liberia where we have a female president. This clearly shows that physical strength is not important but people should get jobs out of their qualifications and the potentials they have. Physical strength does not also influence the number of men relative to women who will pursue a college education. This is because most of the women are also enrolling in higher institutes of education. This shows that their economic status is also increasing hence higher earnings in return.”Labour market outcomes are likely to differ depending on persons outward characteristics. These differences have motivated a large body of research focused on the similarities across gender and racial groups”. (Council of economic advisors. 1998).
Source :( Council of economic advisors. 1998).
To conclude, Wage differences between men and women is something which needs further discussion. The wage gap as can be seen from the diagram above shows how evident wage difference is in the United States. In the United States, wage differences between the two sexes will die away in future and this is because the economic status of women is highly increasing. Unlike in the early ages say in the early 60s and 70s, women are occupying managerial and professional positions just like men.
Anthony, G. (1998):”Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition. The implicit association test”. Journal of personality and social psychology.
Furchtgott-Roth, D and Stolba, C. (1999): Women’s Fingers: An illustrated guide to the economic progress of women in America. Washington, American Enterprise Institute Press.
Hartmann, S. (2004): “Still a mans labour market, the long term earnings gap”. Institute for women’s policy research, at http://www.iwpr.org/pdf/C355.pdf.
Council of economic advisors. (1998): Explaining trends in the Gender Wage Gap. Washington, D.C.: The Council of Economic Advisors.
Hillary, C. (2008): A look at the democratic nominating process.Worldpress Political Blogs.
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