Asses The Impacts Of Different Feasibility Criteria On A System Investigation

1. Task 1
Discuss the component of the feasibility report. Consider the following types of feasibility
a. Technical Feasibility
b. Operational
c. Time
d. Legal
e. Economical
f. Social
g. Management

2. Feasibility Study
The Feasibility study is an analysis of possible alternative solutions to a problem and a recommendation on the best alternative. It can decide whether a process be carried out by a new system more efficiently than the existing one.
The feasibility study should examine three main areas; - market issues, - technical and organizational requirements, - financial overview. The results of this study are used to make a decision whether to proceed with the project, or table it. If it indeed leads to a project being approved, it will - before the real work of the proposed project starts - be used to ascertain the likelihood of the project's success.

3. Types of Feasibility
The feasibility study includes complete initial analysis of all related system. Therefore the study must be conducted in a manner that will reflect the operational, economic as well as technical and scheduling feasibility of the system proposal. These are the four main types of feasibility study.
3.1 Technical
The technical aspect explores'if the project feasibility is within the limits of current technology and does the technology exist at all, or if it is available within given resource constraints (i.e., budget, schedule,...). In the technical feasibility the system analyst look between the requirements of the organization, such as, (I) input device which can enter a large amount of data in the effective time (II) Output devices which can produce output in a bulk in an effective time (III) The choice of processing unit depends upon the type of processing required in the organization.
3.2 Operational
This aspect defines the urgency of the problem and the acceptability of any solution. It shows if the system is developed, will it be used. The operational study includes people- oriented and social issues: internal issues, such as manpower problems, labor objections, manager resistance, organizational conflicts and policies; also external issues, including social acceptability, legal aspects and government regulations. It takes in consideration whether the current work practices and procedures support a new system and social factors of how the organizational changes will affect the working lives of those affected by the system.

3.3 Time Feasibility
Given his technical expertise, the analyst should determine if the project deadlines are reasonable whether constraints placed on the project schedule can be reasonably met. Some projects are initiated with specific deadlines. You need to determine whether the deadlines are mandatory or desirable. If the deadlines are desirable rather than mandatory, the analyst can propose alternative schedules. It is preferable (unless the deadline is absolutely mandatory) to deliver a properly functioning information system two months late than to deliver an error-prone, useless information system on time! Missed schedules are bad, but inadequate systems are worse!
We may have the technology, but that doesn't mean we have the skills required to properly apply that technology. True, all information systems professionals can learn new technologies. However, that learning curve will impact the technical feasibility of the project, specifically, it will impact the schedule.
3.4 Legal Feasibility
Determines whether the proposed system conflicts with legal requirements e.g. a Data Processing system must comply with the local Data Protection Acts. When an organization has either internal or external legal counsel, such reviews are typically standard. However, a project may face legal issues after completion if this factor is not considered at this stage
3.5 Economic Feasibility
The bottom line in many projects is economic feasibility. During the early phases of the project, economic feasibility analysis amounts to little more than judging whether the possible benefits of solving the problem are worthwhile. As soon as specific requirements and solutions have been identified, the analyst can weigh the costs and benefits of each alternative. This is called a cost-benefit analysis.
3.5.1 Cost /benefit analysis
Feasibility studies typically involve cost/benefit analysis. In the process of feasibility study, the cost and benefits are estimated with greater accuracy. If cost and benefit can be quantified, they are tangible; if not, they are called intangible
3.6 Social feasibility
Its part would determine the proposed project will be satisfactory for the people or not. This assumption would in general examine the probability that the project would have to be accepted by the group of people that are directly affected by the proposed system.

4. Task 2
Asses the impacts of different feasibility criteria on a system investigation
The Feasibility study is an analysis of possible alternative solutions to a problem and a recommendation on the best alternative. It can decide whether a process be carried out by a new system more efficiently than the existing one.
The feasibility study should examine three main areas; - market issues, - technical and organizational requirements, - financial overview. The results of this study are used to make a decision whether to proceed with the project, or table it. If it indeed leads to a project being approved, it will - before the real work of the proposed project starts - be used to ascertain the likelihood of the project's success.
5. Technical impact
The growth of information and the dependency on it have paved the way for the
Information society and subsequently the knowledge society. Information has always been prime factor for the development of society and is often regarded as a vital national resource. Information services try to meet this objective. Information has become important part of our lives and should be available when needed. Information services are generated using new tools and techniques to facilitate the right users to the right information (Khodeh and Dhar, 2002). The implementation of information technology in the libraries has demanded new forms of library services to get more user satisfaction. Digital library service has evolved after the implementation of IT in the library and information centers. Information technology has had a significant impact and has successfully changed the characteristics of information services being generated in libraries. The past two decades have seen great changes in library due to information technology. The technological advancement have made significant impact on the growth of knowledge and unlocking of human potential. In library, the impact is clearly visible on information resources, services, and people (Manjunatha, 2007).

6. Operational Impact
Organizations that are lean in their competitive race are those that excel in their operations in ways that are fully tuned with their strategic intents. This allows them to maximize the operational impact of their strategy and to achieve sustained high performance.
7. Economic impact
Economic impact measurement has become a powerful and persuasive tool for those looking to capture and evidence the financial benefits that can result from the hosting of a major event. Measuring economic impact not only allows public sector bodies to evaluate their economic return on investment, but it also demonstrates how events drive economic benefits - allowing event organizers develop practices which maximize these benefits.
The 'economic impact' of a major event refers to the total amount of additional expenditure generated within a defined area, as a direct consequence of staging the event. For most events, spending by visitors in the local area (and in particular on accommodation) is the biggest factor in generating economic impact; however, spending by event organizers is another important consideration. Economic Impact studies typically seek to establish the net change in a host economy - in other words, cash inflows and outflows are measured to establish the net outcome.

8. Social Impact

Social impacts are unlikely to happen by chance and must be managed if they are to occur. The starting point in delivering specific social impacts is for an event to have clearly stated aims and objectives that describe the delivery mechanisms by which the planned impacts will occur.
The reason for measuring social impacts can often be linked directly to the aims and objectives of the event funders. It is important to recognize that satisfying the objectives of a stakeholder should not offer the only incentive to measure the social impacts of events. Any event organizer should wish to understand how their event impacts on the perceptions and behavior of people (whether directly or indirectly).

9. Task 3
The Himalayan library is the newly established library, which is located in the heart of the Kathmandu valley and it is held to support and augment learning, teaching, and research by providing a good environment for studying and to delivering an efficient and quality library services through well-trained staff, outstanding collections and interactive facilities.
This proposal includes a detailed solution to the problems The Himalayan library encountered at present. Besides, we have included a detailed implementation plan and budget requirement for your reference, so that you may consider having some feasibility on our proposal.
The following are some major problems encountered:
Inefficient of the current manual operating system
Lack a centralized control of data
Not able to handle the large increase of workload in the future

In order to solve the problems, there are some possible suggestions to fit your needs. The main theme of the solutions is as follows:
Fully computerized library system
A centralized control server
High speed system that is able to handle numerous process at the same time

We do believe that this project can bring The Himalayan library to a new generation and providing both quantitative and qualitative services to your customers.
10. Systems analysis
Systems analysis is the process of examining a business situation for the purpose of developing a system solution to a problem or devising improvements to such a situation. Before the development of any system can begin, a project proposal is prepared by the users of the potential system and/or by systems analysts and submitted to an appropriate managerial structure within the organization.
The ways in which a system investigation is carried out are
10.1 Observation:
The analyst will observe users actually using the system. They will probably follow a complete process from start to finish and note down every interaction that happens
10.2 Interview
The analyst will interview selected staffs who use the current system in order to get a detailed overview of how things work. They will want to know what the main problems are and whether users have any suggestions on how to improve the way things work.
10.3 Document Analysis
Most organizations have business documents and written processes/ procedures relating to the current IT system. These documents detail how the system works and the processes which users should follow. The analyst will examine these documents in detail.
10.4 Questionnaire
Questionnaires enable the analyst to obtain the views of a large number of staff/ users. Questionnaires are also easier to analyze than face-to-face interviews but the trade-off is that they don't give as much detail.
10.5 Reasons for new system
Current manual operated library system results in inefficient and inaccurate daily operations. It is inefficient as all the process have to be processed by human effort which the librarian have to be fill in a lot of information into a book record in order to complete a single and simple transaction like borrowing and returning of books. Inaccurate as it is an instance of inefficiency as human errors may be committed easily, especially during peak hours of the library usage. Moreover, it is inaccurate when data are kept by many departments; data inconsistency and redundancy are common problems. Therefore, a reliable and efficient system should be imposed in the library to make The Himalayan library more compatible to the future needs
10.6 Recommendation
A client-server system is recommended. The system will consist of two types of computers and one software system that embedded all tools and functions that The Himalayan library may needed to perform its daily works. There will be one server that provides all the necessary utilities of the operations within the system. The server will provide a centralized control to all the terminals in the system. The other computers are the client of the system, which must access to files and data contain in the server to execute the operations. This set up enables the library to control all the data flow and maintain a high security computer system.

11. Operation of the system
The operation of the library system is divided into three major parts.
11.1.1 Operation of the Web borrowing system
The borrowing system is used the web technology to build up. The user can access the web within the library (through intranet) or outside the library (through internet).The web borrowing system is divided into two parts.
1. User information
This part will contain user account information. User can check his borrowing status, renewal the book and reservation of the book.
2. Library Catalogue.
This part will contain the book status. User can check the books he wants are lend out or not. Also, it can check the detail of the book.
11.1.2 Operation of Terminal system
There will be 100 terminal computers in the library and all of them are connected to the server. The terminals can check the information in the library. The terminal system is divided into two parts.
11.1.3 Library detail.
The details of the library: User can get more information of the library. It will have the map of the library and the book location in the library. User can see the whole library map and the search the book location in the library.
11.1.4 Book detail.
It will use the web borrowing system to check the book status in the library.
11.2 Operation of Database Server system
The database server acts a very important role in the library. It stores all the book and user data in it. So the database server system will be divided into two parts in order to maintain the server stable.
11.2.1 Update the database.
It has user friendly software to the librarian to add the new book, modify existing book.
11.2.2 Sever Management
It will prevent unauthorized access of sites.
11.2.3 Backup
The database server system will be back up the data daily automatically.

12. Task 4
12.1 Use case diagram
Use cases are written to help explain software or business system. The main characteristic of a use case is that it demonstrates by example how the system works. A use case includes an actor or actors, a goal to accomplish within the system and the basic flow of events (the action steps taken to reach the goal) simple diagram are often used to illustrate a use case.
12.2 Context diagram
Context diagrams depict the environment in which a software system exists. The context diagram shows the name of the system or product of interest in a circle with the circumference of the circle representing the system boundary. Rectangles outside the circle represent external entities which could be user classes, actors, organizations, other software systems or hardware devices that interface to the system.

12.3 0 and 1 level DFD diagram
A data flow diagram (also called a process model) can be utilized by anyone in any job application. Its use is not necessarily confined to the field of computer science, although it's commonly used in that field. Data can refer to any information or physical entity, such as people. As such, any "data" which "moves"--whether from one physical location to another or from one process to another--can have its movement charted (or tracked) via a data flow diagram. A simple example for using a data flow diagram would be tracking a package from its point of origin to its destination. Data flow diagrams (DFDs), like many organizational tools, are simply tools which are drawn out visually. They are similar to, but different from, flowcharts

13. Task 5
13.1 Introduction
The main objective of this document is to illustrate the requirements of the project Library Management system. The document gives the detailed description of the both functional and non-functional requirements proposed by the client. The document is developed after a number of consultations with the client and considering the complete requirement specifications of the given Project. The final product of the team will be meeting the requirements of this document.
13.2 Purpose
The purpose of this document is to describe the external behavior of the Library Management System. The Vision Document captures very high-level requirements and design constraints, which gives the reader an understanding of the Library Management System to be developed. Requirements Specification defines and describes the operations, interfaces, performance, and quality assurance requirements of the Library Management System. The document also describes the nonfunctional requirements such as the user interfaces. It also describes the design constraints that are to be considered when the system is to be designed.
13.3 Scope
The Library Management System that is to be developed provides the members of the Library and employees of the library with books information, online blocking of books and many other facilities. The Library Management System is supposed to have the following features.
' The product provides the members with online blocking of books capabilities and the library Management System is up and running all day.
' The system provides logon facility to the users.
' The system provides the members with the option to check their account and/or change their options like password of the account whenever needed all through the day during the library hours.
The features that are described in this document are used in the future phases of the software development cycle. The features described here meet the needs of all the users. The success criteria for the system are based in the level up to which the features described in this document are implemented in the system.
13.4 Overview
The Library Management System is a web-based application which is able to manage different types of library resources such as Books, Magazines, News Papers, CD/DVDs, and any other resources which the management feels in the future could form a resource
Basically, there are three views for the convenience of the user. In the catalogue view the user can find the available books in library, in My Account view the user can know the details of books he borrowed and in Administrator view the user can have all the rights to add, delete, modify etc., Advanced search ,searches according to author ,campus, book name, category ,ISBN number. Another button by name Search which is used to search depending upon any one of the categories like author, book name etc., these are the main functions of the system.
Context Diagram summarizes all processing activity and also helps users to view highest level of system with system boundaries. The system overview can be shown in the form of context diagram.

13.5 Product Perspective
The Library Management System to be developed benefits greatly the members and the Librarian of University of Houston-Clearlake. The system provides books catalog and information to members and helps them decide on the books to borrow from the library. The Librarian can keep the books catalog updated all the time so that the members (students and the professors) get the updated information all the time.

13.6 User Classes and Characteristics

There are various kinds of users for the product. Usually web products are visited by various users for different reasons.
The users include:
' Students who will be using the above features by accessing the Library online.
' Librarian who will be acting as the controller and he will have all the privileges of an administrator.
13.7 Product Features
There are two different users who will be using this product:
' Librarian who will be acting as the administrator
' Student of the University who will be accessing the Library online.
The features that are available to the Librarian are:
A librarian can issue a book to the student
' Can view The different categories of books available in the Library
' Can view the List of books available in each category
' Can take the book returned from students
' Add books and their information of the books to the database
' Edit the information of the existing books.
' Can check the report of the issued Books.

The features available to the Students are:
' Can view The different categories of books available in the Library
' Can view the List of books available in each category
' Can own an account in the library
' Can view the books issued to him
' Can put a request for a new book
' Can view the history of books issued to him previously
' Can search for a particular book

13.8 General Constraints
' End user cannot access intermediate files without login.
' If end-user is accessing the intermediate file without login, then he/she can access the secured information without any authority. hence security constraint provides authentication
' Lab Management system handles four different section.
' Lab administrator rights bound to its own lab management section.
' There are only four lab sections with different lab related data.
' Appropriate software and hardware are available.
' An operating system supporting all the hardware and software is available

13.9 Assumptions and Dependencies
' Some of the assumptions that are made in advance are:
' Lab Management system handles four different section.
' Lab administrator rights bound to own lab management section.
' There are only four lab sections with different lab related data.
' A common grading system is used for all the students and companies.
' Appropriate software and hardware are available.
' An operating system supporting all the hardware and software is available
13.10 Analysis Model
13.10.1 Sequence Diagram for Library Management System
A sequence diagram is a form of interaction diagram which shows objects as lifelines running down the page, with their interactions over time represented as messages drawn as arrows from the source lifeline to the target lifeline. Sequence diagrams are good at showing which objects communicate with which other objects; and what messages trigger those communications. Sequence diagrams are not intended for showing complex procedural logic.

13.10.2 State Transition Diagrams for Library Management System

14. Function Requirement The Librarian
Add Article
New entries must be entered in database
Update Article
Any changes in articles should be updated in case of update
Delete Article
Wrong entry must be removed from system
Inquiry Members
Inquiry all current enrolled members to view their details
Inquiry Issuance
Inquiry all database articles
Check out Article
To issue any article must be checked out
Check In article
After receiving any article system will reenter article by Checking
Inquiry waiting for approvals
Librarian will generates all newly application which is in waiting list
Reserve Article
This use case is used to reserve any book with the name of librarian, it can be pledged10.
Set user Permission
From this user case Librarian can give permission categorically, also enabling/disabling of user permission can be set through this use case
15. MEMBER
1. Authentication
User must authenticated before accessing system
2. Search Article
User can search any article
3. Request Article
After successful searching member mark this book as requested article
4. Check Account
This use case is used to check account details

16. Asst. Librarian
Prepare Library database
All data base must be prepared
17. Guest
1. Register user
User must full fill all application form for registration

18. NONE Functional Requirement
18.1 Safety Requirements
The database may get crashed at any certain time due to virus or operating system failure. Therefore, it is required to take the database backup

18.2 Security Requirements
We are going to develop a secured database for the university .There are different categories of users namely teaching staff, administrator, library staff ,students etc. Depending upon the category of user the access rights are decided. It means if the user is an administrator then he can be able to modify the data, delete, append etc., all other users other than library staff only have the rights to retrieve the information about database.
18.3 Software Quality Attributes
The Quality of the database is maintained in such a way so that it can be very user friendly to all the users of the database
18.4 Hardware Constraints
The system requires a database in order to store persistent data. The database should have backup capabilities.
18.5 Software Constraints
The development of the system will be constrained by the availability of required software such as database and development tools.The availability of these tools will be governed by
18.6 Hardware Interfaces
18.6.1 Server
Operating System: Windows
Processor: Pentium 4.0 GHz or higher
RAM: 1GB Mb or more
Hard Drive: 80 GB or more

19. References
L.A. Tedd 'Library management systems 1991-2000' in J.H. Bowman (ed.), British Librarianship 1999-2000. Ashgate, Aldershot, 2006.

John Akeroyd, 'Integrated library management systems: overview', Vine, 115, 1999, 3-10
Marshall Breeding, 'Automated system marketplace 2002: capturing the migrating customer', Library Journal, 127 (6), 2002, 48-53

Qin Zhu, 'Understanding OpenURL standard and electronic resources: effective use of electronic resources', Program: electronic library and information systems, 38(4),2004, 251-256
Marshall Breeding and Carol Roddy, 'Automated systems marketplace 2003: the competition heats up', Library Journal, 128 (6), 2003, 52-64. Available at: http://libraryjournal.reviewsnews.com/index.asp?layout=article&articleid=CA284769&display=FeaturesNewsMore&industry=Features&verticalid=151&starting=9

John MacColl, 'Virtuous learning environments: the library and the VLE', Program: electronic library and information systems 35(3), 2001, 227-239

Marshall Breeding, 'Gradual evolution: automated system marketplace 2005', Library Journal, 130(6), 2005, 42-47

Christine Urquhart, Rhian Thomas, Chris Armstrong, Roger Fenton, Ray Lonsdale, Si??n Spink and Alison Yeoman, 'Uptake and use of electronic information services: trends in UK higher education from the JUSTEIS project', Program: electronic library and information systems, 37(3), 2003, 168-180.
Jasper Kalzer and Anthony Hodge, 'AquaBrowser Library: search, discover, refine', Library Hi Tech News, 22(10), 2005, 9-12

Sommerlad, E., Child, C., Ramsden, C., and Kelleher, J. ,Evaluation of the People's Network and ICT Training for Public Library Staff Programme. Big Lottery Fund, London, 2004. Available at : http://www.nof.org.uk/documents/live/8130p__Peoples_network_evaluation_summary.pdf

Lyn Rainbow, 'ICT training new skills, new culture', Library +Information Update, 3(9), 2004,,38-39

Michael Breaks, 'The eLib hybrid library projects', Ariadne, 28, 2001. Available at: http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue28/hybrid/

Alan Whitelaw and Gill Joy, Summative evaluation of Phase 3 of the eLib initiative: final report. Guildford, Esys, 2001. Available at: http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/services/elib/papers/other/summative-phase-3/elib-eval-main.pdf

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