Introduction :

Organization is a social unit of people, systematically arranged and managed to meet a need or to pursue collective goals on a continuing basis. All organizations have a management structure that determines relationships between functions and positions, subdivides and delegates roles, responsibilities and authority to carry out defined tasks. Every organization needs to imporove their strategical approach to gain competitive advantage, survival in market and also to achieve targets in global markets. Many corporations are trying to change and improve their business to increase numbers of customers and profits, thus, there is Technology which is a way to change the figure of competition such speed of action and the character of leadership. Kakakota R., and Robison M.) 1999.

One such organization, which conquered the world through their innovative ideas is Apple. The assignment will be focussing on the innovative strategies followed by Apple to become the world leader in Computers, Network Servers and Mobile Communications devices. Apple was founded by Steve Jobs, Stephen Wozniak, Ronald Wayne, in 1976. An Intel product engineer Markkula Junior also funded to bring that new born organization to stand. Apple 1 was the first personal computer launched by Apple with a price of $ 666.66 and then later on Apple II with an increased features and price of $ 1298 in 1977.

Innovation :

Innovation is essential for all organizations as it is key factor which separates the best from the rest, by adding value to the organization or their services. Today, most organizations have recognized the importance of innovation and these organizations are trying to integrate innovation with their business strategies. Innovation is mostly inter-linked with technology. The increased competition as a result of globalization, has prompted most of the companies to innovate with the technologies to stay afloat in the competition. Creation of innovative ideas alone will not do any good. The success depends on making the ideas realistic and commercialising it. Finding the triggers to bring change within organization, so, a good vision of the future and an organizational culture encouraging innovations are essential for success. A continuously innovative organization will definitely create a competitive advantage over others.

The main feature of this assignment will intorduce the nature, benefits, failure or success of Organization's new born technology.

Introduction of new Technology (IPad):

Apple Corporation is no doubt world famous for its creative and innovative products, recently Apple launched their tablet PC on 27 January 2010 which is a combination of Laptop computer, iPod and iPhone, with a starting price of $ 499. It has come in two models, one with a WIFI and other with a WIFI + 3G model. The iPad has got a 9.7 inch Led backlet multi touch visual screen, a flash memory of 16 to 64 gigabytes, equipped with a Bluetooth, a 30-pin dock connector for iTunes and with a ten hour battery life. This 700 gm device is more powerful than Apple other products like iphone or ipod, with the same operating system but with a larger screen to use. Its GPS Kit is the ultimate application for heading outdoors with the iPhone. With full-featured maps with caching, real-time GPS readouts, and track/waypoint recording and sharing, getting around outdoors with your iPhone has never been more useful and fun.

Ipad was assembeled by Foxconn which is based in its largest plant in Shenzen, China, Foxconn also assembled iPod and IPhone for Apple. Walk Mossberg of The Wall Street Journal called iPad to vanish Laptops. David Pogue, New York Times wrote a review that its for technology-minded people and also for non-technology-minded people as well, he also noted that it is cheaper to get more features in a laptop for a cheaper price than the iPad.

Implementation of IPad andOrganizational Change :

We can describe Implementation of any product by an organizational change by Kurt Lewin three layers model, which is below :

UNFREEZING MOVE REFREEZE Explanation :

Apple has thorough knowledge of consumer needs and requirements in the current era. Keeping any organization uptodate and equipped with the latest technological ideas is necessity to all business. Apple designers and developers have indepth information of relative products and on going market research, therefore they planned, designed, they did cost evaluation, kept an eye on market structure for their new product iPad and finally they brought their product into the market. Bringing the product into the market, increasing profit is not enough. An organization has to keep life-cycle of their product throughtout the market, bringing new and brain storming ideas, maintaining that product with latest technlogies. Customer feedback, advertising, competitor's products analysis also plays an important role to increase the demand of that product.

Manager's Role in organization :

Apple CEO, Steve Jobs once said “Innovation distinguishes between a leader and a follower.” Jobs wanted to create such a device where designers could combine the functions of Iphone, ipod, Laptops features and digital books reader all together. There were many triggers which turned the brain storming ideas of designers and dream of Steve Jobs into invention of Ipad. Innovation, creating new ideas, maintaining organization needs upto date according to the market and consumers needs is the key invention and aim of Apple Corporation.

External Triggers for Change :

Competitors :

Amazon's digital e-book “Kindle” and Microsoft's Zune HD (multimedia player) turned Apple designers to create such a handy easily commutable device which consumers could use anywhere. IPad unveiled several more important announcements, by launching iBooks, a digital bookshop application in its iTunes store. Books and reading material are going to be e-books gradually with the Technology Change, in that sense Ipad works exactly like an orginal book which we can turn the pages. In fact, Newspapers as well as Magazines are going to be delivered by means of their own applications on the iPad. As for illustrated books, they are better displayed on the iPad compared to Amazon's Kindle device, but still the Kindle application for iPad can take advantage of the same display as iBooks.

New ways of Business :

Kindle and Business related factors gave ideas of IPad to Apple. Invention of Ipad boosted the Apple's profit share, it opened ways for new businesses in sense of emerging applications and higher profit percentage for assembling outlets. Companies would tend to design their applications for iPad where consumers can easily overview upcoming products and market structure. Upcoming applications for Ipad are also going to create a business boost for software developers and designers.

Internal Triggers for Change :

Innovation :

Innovation is the key idea of Apple designers and product developers. The iPad is, essentially, a version of Apple's ultra-successful operating system for the iPhone and iPod Touch, tacked onto a larger, more powerful device. Among the device's many bells and whistles are Bluetooth , wireless and cellular network connectivity, multiple memory sizes to choose from at various prices and the ability to play all the applications currently available through Apple's online store.

Apple has created stunning innovation in an industry that has been remarkable histroy in mobile phone industry. Now every handset maker and wireless company is trying to duplicate them. People are finally realizing that ipad is a better product, beautifully designed, well built and that provide the best usability and customer satisfaction.

Research and Development in Education :

Throughtout the research and development in technology, micro-chips industry and other relevant accessories, computer industry is getting dynamic and brainstorming ideas to develop new technology by increasing its functionality and reducing its volume. On job training, Cost Evaluation, Knowledge Management standard are all important features of education to increase implementation, creating and reinforcing product status in the market. An improved performance of manufacturing companies can be expected from tighter linkages between product and process innovation (Kim et al. 1992). “Managing this product-process connection is one of the top challenges of the era” (Ettlie 1995, p.1224).

Benefits of new technology to organization :

Functions :

First of all IPad is a combination of Apple's two huge sellings products, iPod, iPhone and Mac, which is running on iPhone Operating System.

Compatibality : iPad is 9.7 inch display screen and weight of 730 gm, which states its portable and light weight and can be carry in all transport means.

Profit and Sales : Apple tends to make more profit when consumers choose a WIFI + 3G model with increased memory. On first day of sale in America they sold 700,000 units which is nearly more than twice of the their predicted figure. Manufacturing cost of Apple iPad is $ 270.50 and retail price is starting from $ 499 its mean company is having nearly twice the price as profit. (geek.com, 2010, accessed at 06-04-2010)

Disadvantages of Ipad :

Multitasking : Ultimately, however, the tablet doesn't represent a revolutionary step forward in Apple's product line. Because it can't handle multitasking, it is unlikely to replace products such as the laptop yet.

Expensive : Getting people to spend between $500 and $830 on an iPad is good, but getting them to spend all their music, movie, book and application money through Apple's exclusive stores is better for the company but expensive for consumers.

Limited Features : Only Apple customized games can be played on iPad. There is not any camera installed in the device. iPad has got iBooks but it doesn't has e-ink (the one that makes the brightness of the screen, close to being like a real pages of a book).

Resistance in Future for Ipad

With any new technology, new technologies are birthed around it. Because of this, we'll see innovations much more quickly. May be in near future we can expect a Google tablet of G-pad or G-tab very quickly. Google is working with Abobe in overclock with integrating flash even more. Future threat could be from Amazon's new model of kindle with more enhanced features and functions.

Microsoft and Apple had two different technology ideals. Microsoft needed an Operating System to be all things to all people, which was much more ambitions. The Zune HD (touch screen multimedia player) by Microsoft looks great and works perfectly. So, if Microsoft makes a tablet in its Windows 7 series that is as clear, crips and faster as the Zune HD, market demand for ipad can be decreased.

Finally if we take a look at future of Apple's new born technology Ipad, there could be many threats among three main competitors, which are Google's G-tab, Amazon's Kindle and Microsoft's Zune HD.

Conclusion :

The success story of Apple underlines its importance. The company which started with relatively brand innovative ideas, strategies of Computer hardware and software grew phenomenally to become the world leader in Computer electronics.

Knowing the importance of innovation, the company developed a culture which fosters innovative ideas, following the policy of continuing innovation company was able to maintain its first mover advantage. Making place among other competitors and finding market is difficult but with the right visionary goals, creativity and innovation, usage of Knowledge Management standards they overcame all the challenges to enter in global marketplace.

But, as the consumer needs advances day by day, technology has to be a continuous process, and for this, it has to be integrated with the company's business strategy. Followers always find footsteps of the Leader. Though Apple's Ipad is no doubt a brand new idea of merging Ipod, Iphone and Laptop computer into one unique Table Pc but its also going to leave some traces for other competitors to develop same sort of technology or higher than that. Besides developing new product, an organization has to keep its life fuel throughout the market to maintain its life-cycle, by shaping it a complete platform independent every day tool and advertising the product by giving a complete sketch of the product to the consumers.

Source: Essay UK - http://doghouse.net/free-essays/information-technology/organization-is-social-unit-of-people.php


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