A2.1- Key actors in the AgeCare Environment

The key actors in the AgeCare Environment are mainly employees who work in the AgeCare. There are three parts in the AgeCare system. They are Head-Office, Centres and Projects.For Head-Office environment, the key actors are Chief Executive Officer (CEO) - a link man between Senior Executive Committee (SEC), trustees and Staff reports to the SEC and trustees about whole AgeCare condition Administrative Department Staff- gather information about the centres and projects manage support for the project and reports to the trustees about project's informationf inancial Department Staff - manage funds from the trustees allocate budgets to each centre and each project manage reports about financial information and reports to the trustees For Centre environment, the key actors are Centre Manager-manage the centre operations allocate budget to each projects concerned with the centre report information about projects to head-office Assistant Manager-gather information from

projects report information to Centre Manager admin Support Staff-support resources to each project gather information from each projects and report to head-office's Information Quality Officer For Project environment, the key actors are Lead-Worker-manage the project plan for project's schedule allocate fund and budgets for project manage the staff and volunteers gather information about project report to Centre Manager and Head-Office Full-time staff-give services for elderly people report information about project to Lead-Worker regularly Volunteer-give services for elderly people report information about project to Lead-Worker regularly Other key actors in the system boundary,Senior Executive Committee-monitor for whole AgeCare manage for whole AgeCare make negotiation and contract with trustees Outside the boundary, the key actors are Trustees-give funds for the projects monitor and supervise for Projects

A2.2- Key issues and areas of conflict affecting the AgeCare's environment

The key issues or problems of AgeCare are

  • Overloaded and inconsistent information between departments and centres and projects
  • To report consistent and accurate information to the Trustees and SEC
  • To manage all funds centrally
  • To get the actual project's resource information and performance information
  • To get update and right sort of information quickly
  • To know the accurate information about funds and agreement for funds
  • To provide accurate information about services to elderly people
  • To provide right information to right people with right privileges

Therefore AgeCare want to develop Management Information System (MIS) which helps AgeCare's information system effectively.

The key areas of conflict affecting the AgeCare's environmentare

  • The trustees and the AgeCare have different view and some conflicts between them. The trustees want to see evidence that the projects they give funds are having good image and funds are used wisely. They want better and better quality the projects are. But on the other hand, AgeCare think the more funds they get the better quality the projects are. I think this is conflict between trustees and AgeCare.
  • The service places and AgeCare also have conflicts that the service places want to see the project's services are fair and AgeCare gives fair visits to them. But AgeCare thinks what the best service places for elderly people by economical scales and facilities are and what places the elderly people are most likely to visit are. Then AgeCare takes elderly people and gives services to those places.
  • There are also between conflicts between AgeCare's departments. For example, administrative department want to get consistent information and right sort of information in quickest way and want to develop a system for central information system. Financial department want to have a new finance system in which finance is central and that system deals with any kind of finance within whole AgeCare. Chief Executive officer want to see the result of projects and AgeCare's performance and want to perform operations with new system to create viable strategy for the future. Some centres do not want to develop new systems because they are afraid to learn new technology. These are reasons which create conflicts within AgeCare.

A2.3-Main Focus of AgeCare System

The AgeCare system provides services for elderly people with funds donated by trustees. The actors in the AgeCare environment are mainly AgeCare's staff. They collect funds from trustees and gives services to elderly people and reports to trustees about funds and projects conditions. AgeCare wants to give services more effectively and want to gather accurate and right sort of information in order to provide better quality social services for elderly people. AgeCare wants to develop a common interface for secure and standard information to provide centers and projects. Trustees and Senior Executive Committee are main owners of AgeCare system. Trustees provide funds to continue AgeCare and Senior Executive Committee sets goal of AgeCare and strategy for AgeCare. They want accrual information about the projects and funds condition. Therefore, AgeCare's main environment is with trustees and elderly people.

Inside the AgeCare system, there are three sub-systems, projects, centres and head-office. AgeCare has 15 centres and one head-office. In the head-office, administrative department collects and manage information from every centre and projects and report about projects' condition to trustees. Finance department is mainly allocated funds from trustees to each centre and projects. For every center, there is Centre Manager, Assistant Manager and admin support staff who gives administrative supports for each project. A centre can have many projects. The centre needs to allocate budget from head-office to each project. For every project, there are a lead-Worker, staff who needs to be paid salaries and volunteers. The projects directly communicate with elderly people who are major clients of the AgeCare system. The projects are social-services projects for elderly people. The fund can be donated directly to project by trustees.

In conclusion, according to the rich picture, the whole AgeCare concerns to get consistent, accurate and update information about projects and funds in order to improve project's quality. Therefore, AgeCare system needs to develop Management Information System. In the system, the standard information for whole organization should be provided. There must be provided easy and abstract information among too much overloaded information by MIS. In the MIS, it is needed to provide easy report structure. The system should have authorization and authentication for highly secure information. The system needs to show right person to right information with right user privileges. In the MIS, there should also be provided financial report system.

A3- Process in developing rich picture and the ways it assists for understanding complex AgeCare environment

For AgeCare complete environment, I need to develop a rich picture. Before drawing rich picture of AgeCare, I need to analyse the complex environment. So I read interviews for actors in the AgeCare system. I also analyse the JAD session for developing MIS of AgeCare. By analyzing those, I understand about AgeCare clearer and clearer. I also know what the main purpose of AgeCare is. I also understand what the key actors who operate AgeCare and take activities for AgeCare's processes are. I also know major clients who benefits from system. I also notice people who provide the major funds to operate AgeCare and who manage the AgeCare mainly. I also notice the communication between sub-systems easily.

When I was drawing rich picture, firstly I drew out the key actors in the rich picture environment. After that I define the main boundary of AgeCare system. Then I defined who are inside the boundary of the AgeCare system and who are outside the boundary. Then I defined the communication and structure between each actor. After that I considered what are the main concerns or issues for each actor. Then I divided sub-systems projects, centres and head-office from AgeCare whole system. Then I searched where can be conflicts between who and who. Then I considered people who monitors or supervises for AgeCare.

By drawing rich pictures, I realize what are the main beliefs and concerns of each actor in AgeCare's environment more and more. I also notice what kinds of activities to solve those concerns when I make AgeCare's Management Information System. I also notice what the nature of Information system of the AgeCare is. I can distinguish the financial flow that is the flow of budget and information flow easily. I also distinguish the information and operation flow between each key actor evidently from rich picture.

From AgeCare's rich picture, I know what the main requirements of AgeCare are, what the future aim of AgeCare is and what major concerns in the AgeCare system are. I also know the concerns of each actor in the AgeCare's environment and structures and information flow between each actor of the AgeCare. I also clearly see the AgeCare's whole organizational structure.

Due to the rich picture of AgeCare, I realize who the clients of the AgeCare system are, who the key actors of AgeCare are, what the main processes in the AgeCare system, what is the common view of each actors in AgeCare environment and what the conflicts between each actors and what their aims are and who are the ownership side in the AgeCare and what are the main environmental factors in AgeCare. I know what weaknesses of organization's processing made by human are.

I can also distinguish the requirements of client in the AgeCare, elderly people are, the views of ownership, trustees and SEC and requirements for them. I also notice the common view between those clients, owners and actors. I also know easily where should be emphasized as the major focus area of AgeCare and major requirements for proposed AgeCare's MIS system by seeing rich picture

I can see human activity system and technical aspects of the AgeCare system from the analysis of AgeCare's environment and drawing rich picture. I also know social part of the AgeCare such as beliefs, expectations, contracts and concerns of each actor in the AgeCare when I analysed soft system of AgeCare for drawing rich picture. I also know what are the purposes of each actor in AgeCare, what lines of structure and communication exist between each actor in AgeCare because of that analysis.

From rich picture, I know where absence of communication between each department is and where are weaknesses of the information flow in the AgeCare organization. By knowing this, I can design how I could fill to have communication and reduce the weaknesses.

Before drawing rich picture, I need to analyse the human activities and human concerns in the system. By analyzing, I know what is happening in the system by human, when it is happening and what input process is needed in system and what are the main output of system and what is the transformation processes in the system to become output from input.

I also know what are the requirements of each actors by morally and by technically due to the soft system analysis for rich picture. Rich picture highlights me apparently what are the contradictions between each actor and thoughts and concerns of each actor in system's environment.

As results, when developing computerized system, I realize what needs to focus for the system mainly. I also know what kind of actions or processes should be made in the computerized system to reduce human's issues and concerns. I also consider what the best way of developing system is which solves all concerns of actors in the system. By realizing the issues, it helps to choose best proper methodology when I implement the system.

In conclusion, by drawing rich picture, there are a lot of things I have learnt. Due to the drawing of rich picture I consider how to adjust and fit between computer system and human in the system. I notice what are the structure and processing information function within the organization. I also know what the technical specification for the system is close enough to fulfill the requirements which identified in the rich picture. Rich picture helps me to understand AgeCare's complex environment and see structures in the whole AgeCare organization easily. I can abstract what kind of the information is mainly concerned to develop computerized system and which information is unnecessary after drawing rich picture. I can also abstract the main requirement of MIS system for AgeCare system and what kind of MIS system is best suited for AgeCare from rich picture and soft system analysis.

B1.Use Case Diagram for GreenDrive Project

B2- Two Key uses of The System

Two key uses of the system are

  1. Arrange Rota
  2. Record about transportation

B2.1- Reasons for why they are keysto the system

1. Arrange Rota

Arrange Rota is the key use of the system.

Without Arranging Rota, the whole project cannot run smoothly.

To be a successful and good quality project, scheduling carefully is a basic need and essential parts.

Schedule for transportation can clearly be seen and it can be seen distinctly which volunteer drivers is free and which drivers is in queue.

And when the driver who is on duty, fails to come because of something personal problems, it is easy to substitute by looking at the rota.

Without arranging rota, Doris cannot manage which vehicle is free and proper-use with whom drivers.

Without arranging rota ahead, the procedure for trip is arranged day by day or when the elderly people calls. It can result ciaos project. And for financial report and report for the supermarkets and social services who are funders of the green drive would be more difficult and unstructured.

That is why I think arranging rota is first the key use of the Greendrive project. Without firm foundation, there would not be good quality project. Arranging rota is foundation of the project. Therefore arranging rota is very basis use of the project.

2. Record daily transportation

Record daily transportation is also the key use of the system.

It is needed to care for recording about transportation because Greendrive project's purpose is to provide transport using green technology.

The project is funded by social services and supermarkets. Both of the funders want to see project is well-done. Social services who lend money for buying duel-fuel vehicles want reports about the uses of vehicles and service is happening regularly.

Therefore for reporting about project to funders, a thorough record for transportation is very necessary.

Transportation is main operation of Greendrive project. Without transportation, Greendrive project cannot be continued. That main operation is needed to record carefully in order to know which part of the project is facing with problems.

By recording about transportation, it can get best solutions and better performance for the project's operations and can highlight best suggestions and requirement for the Greendrive operation when reporting to the finance and administration department and funders.

Recording about transportation should be included the facts about passenger's present and absent numbers for every trip and emergency calls in order to know the elderly people in which location is needed to care more because of health or something problems. Moreover, it can highlight the passengers who are active with the system and it can know customer's satisfaction on the project.

Therefore recording about transportation is essential not only for project's major operation but also for reporting to the management and trustees.

B2.2- Primary and Secondary Scenarios for each of the uses

Primary Scenario

Use Case: Arrange Rota

Primary Actor: Doris Smith

Precondition: The first day of the month is come.

Flow of events

  1. The use case starts when the Doris chooses arranging rota screen.
  2. Doris chooses new sheet.
  3. Doris searches records about proposed journeys for the month.
  4. The system will display lists of proposed journeys for the month.
  5. Doris draws daily timetables for journey.
  6. Doris searches last month's volunteer driver's timetables and available drivers' list.
  7. System displays available drivers list.
  8. Doris allocates drivers for each journey.
  9. Doris chooses submit the rota.
  10. The system will confirm information, save the rota and use case ends.

Post condition- The rota is sent to the Claire, drivers and elderly people.

By examining the above primary scenario, a number of questions arise:

  1. What if there are too many journeys or no appointment journeys to allocate within a month?
  2. What if among 8 volunteer drivers, more than 3 drivers take leaves because of personal problems for whole month?
  3. By answering these questions, the secondary scenarios for the arrange rota use case is arise.
  4. Step-5-All proposed journey cannot be allocated for the month.

Step-9-Drivers are insufficient for the month.

Secondary Scenario

Use Case: Arrange Rota

Primary Actor: Doris Smith

Precondition: The first day of the month is come.

Flow of events

  1. The use case starts when the Doris choose arrange rota screen.
  2. Doris choose new sheet.
  3. Doris searches records about proposed journey for the month.
  4. System displays no appointment journeys.System displays too many journey lists.
  5. Doris cannot allocate all journeys during the month.
  6. Doris draws daily timetables for proper journeys.
  7. Doris moves exceeded journeys to the next month.
  8. Doris searches last month's volunteer driver's timetables and available drivers' lists.
  9. System displays 3 or more than volunteer drivers request leaves for a whole month.
  10. Doris allocates drivers only weekly basis.
  11. Doris chooses submit the rota.
  12. The system will confirm information, save the rota and use case ends.

Alternative Path

In Step-5-If there are no appointment journeys for the month or too many journeys to allocate within a month,

  • Doris may stop the entering Rota.
  • The use case ends.
  • Doris reports to Claire about problems instantly.
  • In Step-9- If Drivers are not available sufficiently for the month,
  • The use case ends.
  • Doris will call new volunteers.
  • Doris reports to Claire about volunteer's problem instantly.
  • At any time before selecting select submit rota by Doris, Doris can select Cancel. The rota is not verified and the use case ends.

Primary Scenario

Use Case: Record daily transportation

Primary Actor: Doris Smith

Precondition: Driver reports about the trips.

Flow of events

  1. The use case starts when Doris selects transportation record screen.
  2. Doris takes a new spreadsheet and chooses today date.
  3. Doris enters volunteer's drivers name and journey name and vehicle information.
  4. Doris enters the present passenger lists.
  5. Doris enters the absent passenger lists.
  6. Doris enters the number of miles driven for the journey.
  7. Doris enters total times and amount of fuel consuming by vehicles.
  8. Doris enters total charges of the journey.
  9. Doris saves the record.
  10. System confirms the information about the transportation record, save the record and the use case ends.

Post condition- The record is sent to Claire.

By examining the above primary scenario, a number of questions arise:

  • What if there are emergency problems concerning with elderly people during transportation?
  • What if there are some accidents in the journey?
  • What if the vehicles are broken down during transportation?
  • What if Doris is not at office when the driver returns and note left by the driver is lost?

By answering these questions, the secondary scenarios for the arrange rota use case is arise.

Step-3- Driver or vehicle or both are substitute.

Step-4-Doris cannot get information about the journey.

Step-6-The journey cannot be continued.

Secondary Scenario

Use Case: Record daily transportation

Primary Actor: Doris Smith

Precondition: Driver reports about the trips.

Flow of events

  1. The use case starts when Doris selects transportation record screen.
  2. Doris takes a new spreadsheet and chooses today date.
  3. Doris enters volunteer's drivers name and journey name and vehicle information.
  4. Doris enters substitute drivers information.Doris enters substitute vehicle information.
  5. Doris rearranges monthly rota because of unavailable driver or vehicle.
  6. Doris requests transportation information from drivers directly.
  7. Doris enters present passenger list.
  8. Doris enters absent passenger list.
  9. Doris enters emergency call information.Doris enters emergency charges.
  10. Doris enters the number of miles driven for the journey.
  11. Doris enters total times and amount of fuel consuming by vehicles.
  12. Doris enters broken down vehicle information.Doris enters maintenance costs.
  13. Doris enters total charges of journeys.
  14. Doris saves the record.
  15. System confirms the information about the transportation record, save the record and the use case ends.

Alternative Path

In Step-5- If driver is faced with accident or vehicle is broken down,

  • The use case ends.
  • Doris arranges to call new volunteers to substitute.
  • Doris reports the information to Claire instantly.
  • In Step-6- If Doris cannot get information about journey because of losing note,
  • Doris aborts filling record.
  • The use case ends.
  • Doris reports that condition to the Claire instantly.
  • In Step-12- If the vehicle is broken down and journey cannot be continued,
  • The use case ends.
  • Doris reports to Claire instantly.
  • At any time before selecting select save record by Doris, Doris can select Cancel. The record is not verified and the use case ends.

Post condition- The final record is sent to Claire.

B3-The process in developing use case and the ways it assisted for understanding requirements

For Greendrive project, I need to draw a use case diagram about the project. First, I analyzed which is the main requirement of the system for the GreenDrive and AgeCare complete environment.

After that, I chose primary actors who always starts the system and who is directly concerned with the system. I chose the primary actor Doris because I think whole GreenDrive project is directly concerned with Doris and Doris is the main actor in the system and Doris starts the project by arranging rota. I also find out other associate users concern with system. I chose Claire as other user.

Then I chose all use cases of the GreenDrive system that is mainly concerned with primary actor, Doris and other actors Claire. I arranged the use case in sequence. Then I defined boundary of the GreenDrive system.

Next, I made include participation for all essential and reusable participation and extend participation for optional participation for each use case.

After that I chose the most important two use cases and I wrote use case description about the use cases. I found the precondition and the post condition events. I considered the use case starts when and what is the end of the use case. After that I arranged the flow of events which is made by the actors during the processing.

Then I wrote a primary scenario which is written as if everything goes smoothly or there is no error during process. I searched events where can find error condition in the condition. If the error condition find, I consider what can result and which action that can be taken when facing with errors. Then I wrote secondary scenario. And I also considered alternative paths the solution for errors.

There are a lot of things I have learnt from Use Case modeling. I realize the Green Drive project more and more clearly due to the use case diagram. And I also see the clear line of action during the project is clearer and clearer. The use case also identifies me to see a clear boundary of the system. I evidently see the functionality of GreenDrive project easily. I also know GreenDrive operation more and more clearly. I clearly find actors and their roles easily by the use case diagram.

By drawing use case diagram, I think I realize what the system's main purpose is and what system's main flow is. I see quickly about the sequence what will happen which action finishes when designing for every system by use case concept.

Due to the use case diagram, I know the flow of events in detail when the system operates. I notice which part of the system can find error or difficulty and I consider what the alternative path is if the system find error at the part.

I can abstract easily and clearly the main requirement and the key part of the system by seeing use case. I find the other requirements of the system easily due to the use case diagram. Drawing use case diagram can highlight me to see the requirements of each user in the system evidently. That is when I drew GreenDrive use case; I realize what is the primary actor, Doris requirements, what are the other actors Claire requirements and what is management requirements easily and clearly.

According to GreenDrive use case, I see what kind of system is Management Information System more clearly because it helps me to view of a clear part of GreenDrive project concerned with MIS easily. I think it can help a lot when developing MIS system for AgeCare's complete environment because use case diagram highlights which part of the project is critically concerned with the report.

I also know what is the main action of Doris, what is the main action of Claire and which are the unessential part of the system by seeing use case diagram. Use case diagram indicates me the complex parts in the Green Drive and the complex actions within each use case. It also shows me which part of the system is essential for the users and which need to perform importantly and which action is optional to do. I think I can prioritize easily the system uses by use case.

Due to the use case diagram, I feel I was in the middle of GreenDrive system, as the real actor of GreenDrive system and feel GreenDrive system realistically. I realize the GreenDrive system's operation as I found under my big eyes. I also know what GreenDrive system's behavior is and which part of the GreenDrive is weak to use pilot as MIS. I also know what kind of action should be made for covering those weaknesses.

By writing use case description, I can think the flow of events when a system is created and detail about the system events. I can also view where the system's weakness is easily and I also consider the system from both negative and positive views. I also understand what weakness of the system is and which should be substitute action for the weakness.

From secondary scenario, I know the risk factor of the GreenDrive project and how to prevent such kind of event not to stop GreenDrive system.

I see and find what are the key actors in the system, what is the sequence of the system, which the most important action in the system is and when error can be found at what part of the system and what is the consequences of that error whenever I design a system after drawing GreenDrive use case.

In conclusion, use case diagram helps me to know requirement about the Green Drive project more easily and distinctly. I know the behavior of the GreenDrive system, the functionality required by the GreenDrive system and requirements easily due to the Use Case Diagram of GreenDrive Project. Primary scenario and secondary scenario highlights straightforward flows event of the system and which may be when the system finds something errors or exceptions.

Source: Essay UK - http://doghouse.net/free-essays/information-technology/the-agecare-environment-are-mainly-employees.php


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