The Threats

A threat is defined as intentional or unintentional situation or events that affect the organisation system adversely (Connolly and Begg, 1998). The harm can be tangible or --intangible in nature. Tangible harm includes software, hardware or data while intangible are loss of credibility or client confidence. The difficulty to detect all possible threats facing organisation is the problem organisation do encountered. Successfulness of breach of security by any threat must be viewed as critical because this will have certain impact on the organisation. The table below summaries various threats that organisation could encountered with their corresponding consequences on the organisation.

Table 1 - Examples of threats

Threat

Theft and fraud

Loss of confidentiality

Loss of privacy

Loss of integrity

Loss of availability

Using another person's means of access

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

Unauthorised amendment or copying of data

Yes

No

No

Yes

No

Program alteration

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

Inadequate policies and procedures that allow a mix of confidential and normal data

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

Wire tapping

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

Illegal entry by hacker

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

Blackmail

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

Creating trapdoor into system

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

Theft of data, programs, and equipment

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Failure of security mechanisms, giving greater access than normal

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

Staff shortage or strikes

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

Inadequate staff training

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Viewing and disclosing unauthorized data

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

Electronic interference and radiation

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

Data corruption due to power loss or surge

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

Fire(electrical fault, lightning strike, arson),flood, bomb

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

Physical damage to equipment

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

Breaking cables or disconnection of cables

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

Introduction of viruses

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

Connelly and Begg, 1998

A single threat can have multiple effects on the organization for example theft of data, programs, and equipment has the consequences of theft and fraud, loss of confidentiality, loss of privacy and availability. But the presence of many factors such as contingency plans and existence of countermeasures will reveal the extent to which organization will suffer.

Appropriate plans and countermeasure must be initiated by organization after possible threat has been identified and evaluated.

Accidental incident result in most computer breaches and must be recorded with the frequency of occurrence as well as the person by whom it is caused, if frequent, organization should review the procedure or policies through improvement in other to eliminate the future occurrence.

To minimize the impact of threat on organization, risk analysis must be carried out to evaluate every potential threat effectively. (Connelly and Begg, 1998).

Source: Essay UK - http://doghouse.net/free-essays/information-technology/the-organisation-system-adversely.php


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